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Article

American, 19th century, female.

Born in Portland (Maine); died 1904, in New York.

Painter.

Article

Göran Schildt

(Henrik)

(b Kuortane, Feb 3, 1898; d Helsinki, May 11, 1976).

Finnish architect and designer, active also in America. His success as an architect lay in the individual nature of his buildings, which were always designed with their surrounding environment in mind and with great attention to their practical demands. He never used forms that were merely aesthetic or conditioned by technical factors but looked to the more permanent models of nature and natural forms. He was not anti-technology but believed that technology could be humanized to become the servant of human beings and the promoter of cultural values. One of his important maxims was that architects have an absolutely clear mission: to humanize mechanical forms.

His father was a government surveyor working in the lake district of central Finland and became a counterforce to his son’s strong artistic calling. Instead of becoming a painter, which tempted him for a long time, Alvar chose the career of architect as a possible compromise. He never became a planner dominated by technological thinking, however, but always gave his creations an artistic, humanistic character. He studied at the Technical College in Helsinki (...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 23 June 1847, in New York; died 1917.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman, illustrator. Landscapes, flowers.

Agnes Abatt studied art at the Cooper Institute and the International Academy of Art in New York, and later received advice from R. Swain Gifford and James D. Smilie....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1887, in Vienna, Austria.

Painter, illustrator.

Article

(Edward)

(b Alfred, ME, July 17, 1883; d San Francisco, Nov 11, 1973).

American photographer. Self-taught, Abbe started to produce photographs at the age of 12. From 1898 to 1910 he worked in his father’s bookshop and then worked as a reporter for the Washington Post, travelling to Europe in 1910. Having earlier produced photographs of ships and sailors for tourist cards, from 1913 to 1917 he worked as a freelance photojournalist in Virginia. In 1917 he set up a studio in New York, where he produced the first photographic cover for the Saturday Evening Post as well as photographs for Ladies Home Journal, the New York Times and other publications. From 1922 to 1923 he worked as a stills photographer, actor and writer for film studios. Though this was mainly for Mack Sennett in Hollywood, he also worked for D. W. Griffiths as a stills photographer on Way Down East (1920) and accompanied Lilian Gish to Italy to provide stills for Griffiths’s ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 April 1852, in Philadelphia; died 1911, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink), pastellist, illustrator. Historical subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, figures.

Edwin Austin Abbey's apprenticeship consisted of making drawings for a wood engraver before studying at the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia and starting work as an illustrator. The drawings he supplied for ...

Article

Pamela H. Simpson

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 1, 1852; d London, Aug 1, 1911).

American painter, illustrator, and muralist, active also in England. Abbey began his art studies at the age of 14 in his native Philadelphia where he worked with Isaac L. Williams (1817–95). Two years later he enrolled in night classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art working under Christian Schussele (1824–1979), but by then Abbey was already a published illustrator. In the 1870s his drawings appeared in numerous publications, but it was his work for Harper & Brothers that proved most important to his career. In 1871 he moved to New York, and in 1878, Harper’s sent him on a research trip to England. He found such affinity with the country that he made it his home for the rest of his life. After 1889 he devoted more time to painting, was elected a Royal Academician in 1898, and in 1902 was chosen by Edward VII (...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in Brandon (Vermont).

Painter.

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 17 July 1898, in Springfield, Ohio; died 9 December 1991, in Monson, Maine.

Photographer. Portraiture, documentary, scientific illustrations.

At age 19 Berenice Abbott moved to New York City, where she met Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray. Abbott’s initial interests were in sculpture and acting. In ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Springfield, OH, July 17, 1898; d Monson, ME, Dec 9, 1991).

American photographer. She spent a term at the Ohio State University in Columbus (1917–18) and then studied sculpture independently in New York (1918–21) where she met (Henri-Robert-)Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray. She left the USA for Paris in 1921 where she studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière before attending the Kunstschule in Berlin for less than a year in 1923. From 1924 to 1926 she worked as Man Ray’s assistant and first saw photographs by (Jean-)Eugène(-Auguste) Atget in Man Ray’s studio in 1925. Her first one-woman show, at the gallery Le Sacre du Printemps in Paris in 1926, was devoted to portraits of avant-garde personalities such as Jean Cocteau, James Joyce, and André Gide. She continued to take portraits, such as that of James Joyce (1927; see Berenice Abbott: Photographs, p. 26), until leaving Paris in 1929. After Atget’s death (1927) she bought most of his negatives and prints in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Philadelphia.

Died 1925, in Philadelphia.

Painter.

Francis R. Abbott was a Fellow of the Pennsylvania Academy of Art and a member of the Philadelphia Art Club.

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Mechanicsville; died 1953.

Painter (gouache), illustrator. Genre scenes.

New York, 3 June 1982: Archery Lesson (gouache, 11 × 9½ ins/28 × 24.2 cm) USD 850

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1870, in Philadelphia; died 1938.

Painter. Landscapes.

Bolton, 15 May 1985: Houses, Provincetown (oil on canvas, 30 × 36 ins/76.2 × 91.6 cm) USD 900

New York, 14 Nov 1991: Sea and Derricks (oil on canvas, 30¼ × 36½ ins/77 × 92.9 cm) ...

Article

Sarah Urist Green

(b Kabul, June 5, 1973).

Afghan video and performance artist and photographer, active also in the USA. After fleeing Soviet-occupied Kabul with her family in the late 1980s, Abdul lived as a refugee in Germany and India before moving to Southern California. She received a BA in Political Science and Philosophy at California State University, Fullerton, and an MFA at the University of California, Irvine, in 2000. Abdul first returned to a post-Taliban Afghanistan in 2001, where she encountered a place and people transformed by decades of violence and unrest. Since that time, Abdul has made work in Kabul and Los Angeles, staging herself in performances and creating performance-based video works and photography that explore ideas of home and the interconnection between architecture and identity.

Beginning in the late 1990s, Abdul made emotionally intense performance art informed by that of Yugoslavian artist Marina Abramović and Cuban-born American artist Ana Mendieta. At the time unable to travel to Afghanistan, Abdul created and documented performances in Los Angeles that probed her position as Afghan, female, Muslim, a refugee and a transnational artist. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1894, in Mount Healthy (Ohio), according to some sources, in Widdern (Germany).

Sculptor.

Article

Sandra L. Tatman

(Francis)

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 29, 1881; d Philadelphia, PA, April 23, 1950).

African American architect. Born and educated in Philadelphia, Abele was the chief designer in the firm of Horace Trumbauer. Unknown for most of his life, Julian Abele has become renowned as a pioneer African American architect.

Abele attended the Institute for Colored Youth and Brown Preparatory School before enrolling at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, where in 1898 he earned his Certificate in Architectural Drawing and the Frederick Graff Prize for work in Architectural Design, Evening Class Students. Abele then enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania. Again he distinguished himself in the architectural program, and at his 1902 graduation he was awarded the prestigious Arthur Spayd Brooke Memorial Prize. Abele’s work was also exhibited in the Toronto Architectural Club (1901), the T-Square Club Annual Exhibition (1901–2), and the Pittsburgh Architectural Club annual exhibition of 1903.

As an undergraduate Abele worked for Louis C. Hickman (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 28 August 1952, in Richmond Heights (Missouri).

Installation artist, video artist, photographer.

Kim Abeles was an American Field Service student in 1969 in Utsunomiya, Japan, where a Buddhist priest introduced her to traditional Japanese arts. She returned to the USA and studied painting at Ohio University, receiving a BFA in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1910, in New York; died 30 December 2002, in New York.

Painter, engraver. Figures, scenes with figures, genre scenes.

Ida Abelman studied in New York at the Grand Central Art School, the National Academy School of Fine Art, City College of New York, Hunter College, the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 13 February 1860, in New York.

Painter, miniaturist. Portraits.

Albert Abendschein studied initially in New York, then went to Munich and Italy to complete his training. He specialised in portraits and miniatures. He exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York, in Philadelphia and St Louis, and in Munich he received awards for his work....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 17 February 1909, in Austin (Texas); died 3 July 1977, in Chicago.

Painter.

Magic Realism.

Gertrude Abercrombie spent her childhood travelling around the USA and Europe with her parents who worked in a travelling opera company. They settled in Chicago shortly after World War I and after completing a languages degree at the University of Illinois, Gertrude enrolled in life classes at the Chicago Institute of Art. She spent several years working as a commercial artist before deciding to concentrate on painting in the early thirties. In ...