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Article

A  

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver (wood).

Cited by Brulliot as having engraved a Conversion of St Paul.

Article

A. A.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Initials of a painter and engraver.

Cited by Bartsch and Defer; known for an engraving of Young Satyr and Old Satyr copied from an etching by Marcantonio Raimondi.

Article

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Brulliot made a reference to this artist. His monogram is usually interpreted as A. A. B., but it could also be read as M. B. He left a cartouche, held by two eagles and topped by a ram's head....

Article

A. B.  

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver (stippling).

Brulliot makes a reference to A. B. He produced decorations in gold and silver.

Article

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a painter.

Cited by Ris-Paquot.

Article

French, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Active in Troyes.

Monogram of a glass painter.

School of Champagne.

According to Ris Paquot, A. L. B. worked at the church of St-Nizier.

Article

A. M.  

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

The monogram A. M. is found on an engraving on wood of a View of the Town of Meissen.

Article

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Cited by Ris-Paquot.

Article

A. P.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an artist.

Cited by Defer; noted for his Statue of Diana at Ephesus. Probably the same artist as in the preceding entry.

Article

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

Monogram found on a three-plate chiaroscuro etching of Absalom's Death at the Hands of Joab.

Article

A. V.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

A. V.  

French, 15th – 17th century (?), male.

Active in Limoges.

Monogram of an enameller.

The monogram A. V., listed by Ris Paquot, appears on an enamel in the Le Carpentier Collection.

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....

Article

15th – 17th century, male.

Painters.

Several painters by this name lived and worked in Nuremberg between 1461 and 1616.

Article

Maria Angela Mattevi

[Buon Consiglio; Trent; Trento]

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (1239–55) around the strong donjon, the Torre d’Augusto, by the Imperial Podestà of Trent, Sodegerio da Tito (d 1255), who took up office in 1238. Its function was predominantly military. In 1277 it passed to the Church and became the residence of the prince–bishop of Trent. In subsequent centuries a series of modifications and extensions have brought the castle to its present form. Of fundamental importance were the works completed in 1475 by Giovanni Hinderbach (d 1486) with the aid of Venetian craftsmen, who built the Renaissance Gothic internal court with tiered open galleries and the small loggia on the third floor. At that time the walls of the upper loggia were frescoed with portraits of the bishops of Trent from the city’s origin to the year ...

Article

Carra  

French, 15th – 17th century, male.

Active in Lyons.

Painters.

Barthélemy lived in Lyons in 1495 and 1517, and worked in 1515 and 1516 for the visits of François I and the queen. Michel (Carra or Carré) lived in Lyons in 1533 and 1561. Antoine was in Lyons in ...

Article

Alessandra Civai

Italian family of patrons and collectors. Members of the family held important political positions in Florence, especially during the 15th century. One of their most important acts of patronage, recorded by Vasari, was the commissioning by Roberto Martelli (1408–64) of several sculptures from Donatello, including the famous statue of St John the Baptist as a Youth (c. 1455; Florence, Bargello). Although the accuracy of Vasari’s information has been questioned, some recently discovered unpublished documents have enabled a partial confirmation of the attribution (see Civai, 1988–9, pp. 40–59; 1989). During the 16th century the family gave important commissions to Lorenzo di Credi, Giorgio Vasari, Andrea Sansovino and Giovanni Francesco Rustici in connection with the decoration of family chapels in the basilica of S Lorenzo and the churches of S Frediano in Florence and S Agostino in Rome. In the 17th century the Martelli constructed their sumptuous chapel (...

Article

Stephen Brindle

Carthusian monastery c. 22 km south-east of Segovia in the province of Madrid. It was the first Carthusian monastery in Spain, founded c. 1390 by John I of Castile (reg 1379–90) and generously endowed by him and his son Henry III (reg 1390–1406). Work began on the cells and other residential areas c. 1390 under the Toledan mason Rodrigo Alfonso. The church was begun in 1433 under the supervision of the Segovian Moor Abderrahman, but work on it seems to have been suspended in mid-century and was only resumed in the 1480s. The great cloister with its ogee vaults, the porch, and the vault over the chancel are probably by the Toledan architect Juan Guas. Gil de Hontañón family §(1) may also have worked there and may have designed the outer courtyards. The chapel of the Tabernacle behind the altar was begun in 1718 by Francisco Hurtado Izquierdo...

Article

Cristina Gonzalez

(b Sahagún, León, 1499; d Mexico, 1590).

Spanish writer, missionary, linguist, and ethnographer. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote and compiled the Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (c. 1577), a comprehensive account of the Aztecs. Before arriving in New Spain (Mexico), he studied at the prestigious Universidad de Salamanca, one of the principle centers of culture in western Europe. He took the habit of the Franciscans while still a student. In 1529, at the invitation of friar Antonio de Ciudad Rodrigo, one of the twelve Franciscan friars to arrive in Mexico with Martín de Valencia in 1524, he sailed to New Spain as a missionary. In Mexico City he witnessed the ruins of the Templo Mayor and, according to friar Juan de Torquemada, commissioned a painting of the site and sent it to Spain. He was custodian of the monastery in Tlalmanalco and also resided at the monastery in Xochimilco before becoming a teacher of classics and history at the trilingual imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in ...