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Walloon School, 12th century, male.

Active in France, England, Germany.

Goldsmith, enameller.

A native of Huy, this artist lived in Liège but travelled in Germany, England and France to carry out commissions. This suggests the reputation he had as an enamel worker. In 1145 Abbot Suger himself asked him to make the great cross of St-Denis, so admired was he by his contemporaries. Unfortunately very few of his works have survived: a reliquary of St Anthony and those of St Mengold and St Domitien, which have been restored....


Polish, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

Leopardus was a Benedictine monk in Zwiefalten. He made a large crucifix for the monastery church. The bronze doors of the cathedral in Gniezno are attributed to him.


P. Cornelius Claussen

(b ?Verdun; fl 1181–1205).

French goldsmith. His known works indicate that he was one of the leading metalworkers of his day and an early exponent of the classicizing styles around 1200 that formed a transition between Romanesque and Gothic. In his two dated signatures, nicolaus virdunensis (1181) on the enamel decoration of the former pulpit in Klosterneuburg Abbey, Austria (see fig.), and magister nicholaus de verdum (1205) on the Shrine of the Virgin in Tournai Cathedral, the artist gave as his place of origin Verdun, in Lorraine, an area that in the 12th century had close economic and cultural links with the Rhineland, Champagne, the Ile-de-France and the metalworking centres of the Meuse. A more ambiguous signature, nicolaus de verda, was on the pedestal of one of a lost pair of enthroned, silver-gilt statuettes in Worms Cathedral representing St Peter and the founder Queen Constance, the wife either of Emperor Henry VI (m. ...


12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 12th century.

Born 1130; died 1205.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Moselle school.

Nicolas de Verdun worked at Tournai, Cologne and Vienna, following in the footsteps of Godefroid de Huy and adopting the new iconography of Abbot Suger. He is known above all for the reredos in Klosterneuburg, Austria (completed in ...


Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Puglia.

Sculptor, illuminator, goldsmith.