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Article

Thorsten Opper

Source of a group of Roman and Greek works of art, in particular a group of Greek bronze sculptures and statuettes. In 1900 sponge-divers discovered the remains of an ancient shipwreck in the sea off the Greek island of Antikythera. In one of the first operations of this kind, they salvaged some its cargo. A new investigation of the wreck site took place in 1976 and succeeded in recovering many further objects, as well as (still unpublished) remains of the hull. All the finds are now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. The ship, which must have foundered in the second quarter of the 1st century bc, carried a mixed cargo of ‘antique’ and contemporary bronze and marble statuary, as well as luxury products such as bronze furniture attachments, rare and expensive types of glass, gold ingots etc. It also contained the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, an elaborate type of astrolabe....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Thorsten Opper

In 1954 a large number of fragments of ancient plaster casts came to light in the Roman city of Baiae on the gulf of Naples. Of a total of 430 fragments, 293 were in a condition that allowed further analysis. This revealed that they originally belonged to a group of 24–35 full-length statues that formed a representative collection of plaster copies of Greek bronze originals (gods, heroes, mythological figures) mainly of the 5th and 4th centuries bc. Twelve of these statues could be identified through comparison with Roman marble copies (e.g. Tyrant Slayers, Ephesian Amazons, Athena Velletri, Westmacott Ephebe, Hera Borghese, Eirene and Ploutos). For others likely identifications have been suggested, but cannot be proven (e.g. Doryphoros). The Baiae plaster statues were technically highly accomplished (hollow-cast figures with internal armatures, probably the first casts produced from high-quality moulds), and are likely to have been imported, perhaps from a place such as Athens, where at least three of the originals were located....

Article

Irene Bald Romano

Image of a divinity that served in antiquity as a focal-point for worship and cult rituals. Most cult statues were housed in temples or shrines, although outdoor worship of images is also attested. Although aniconic worship (i.e. of a non-anthropomorphic symbol of a deity such as a rock or pillar) is known in Near Eastern, Greek and Roman cults, most deities by the late 2nd millennium bc were worshipped in an anthropomorphic form and were, as such, earthly substitutes or humanized manifestations of the presence of a deity.

Anthropomorphic cult statues are well attested in the Ancient Near East, Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt. Near Eastern cuneiform records going back at least to the 2nd millennium bc indicate that Mesopotamian cult images were made of wood and opulently clad in tiaras, robes and jewellery. The garments of the statue were ceremonially changed, and ritual meals were served up to the cult image. Specific attributes and attire aided identity. From ...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

An islet to the west of Paros and Antiparos in the centre of the Cyclades. It has been identified as ancient Prepesinthos, mentioned by Strabo (Geography X.v.3) and Pliny (Natural History vi.66). The archaeological remains of Despotikon were first explored in the late 19th century by pioneer Greek archaeologist Christos Tsountas, who excavated Early Cycladic (c. 3200–2000 bc) cemeteries at Livadi and Zoumbaria, and identified remains of a prehistoric settlement at the site of Chiromilos. Sixty more graves of the Early Cycladic period, as well as one of the Roman period, were discovered in the mid-20th century by the Greek Archaeological Service. Rescue excavations were initiated again in 1997, focused on the site at Mandra, where an extensive sanctuary dedicated to Apollo has been located. The excavation has yielded a great number of finds, many of which are of prime importance as to the interpretation of the site, its role in the Aegean and its relations with the Near East, from the Archaic to the Roman period....

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated at the foothills of Mt Olympus in northern Greece (district of Pieria), 14 km south of modern city of Katerini. It was an important Macedonian political and cultural centre from the Classical to the Roman periods (6th century bc–4th century ad). By the 6th century bc it seems that the Macedonians were gathering at Dion in order to honour the Olympian gods, chiefly Zeus; according to myth, Deukalion, the only man to survive the flood at the beginning of time, built an altar to Zeus as a sign of his salvation. His sons, Macedon and Magnes, lived in Pieria, near Olympus, and became the mythical ancestors of the Macedonians. The altar allegedly erected by Deukalion remained the centre of the cult life at Dion throughout its history.

King Archelaos of Macedon (c. 413–399 bc) organized athletic and dramatic contests in the framework of the religious celebrations, following the practice of the Greeks in the south, such as at the great sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Philip II (...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...

Article

5th century, male.

Active in 491 BC.

Born in Sicily or Greece.

Sculptor, painter.

Ancient Roman.

Gorgasus, along with Damophilus, completed the decoration of the temple of Ceres in Rome, executing terracotta statues and wall paintings.

Article

Lykios  

Diane Harris

(b Eleutherai, Boiotia; fl c. mid-5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. He was trained by his father, the famous sculptor Myron (Pliny: Natural History XXXIV.xix.50). He was active in Athens and Olympia. None of his works survives; they included a bronze statue of a youth holding a basin on the Athenian Acropolis (Pausanias: Guide to Greece I.xxiii.8), of which the inscribed marble base perhaps survives (Inscr. Gr./2, I, 537). He also produced two bronze equestrian statues, which were erected at the entrance to the Acropolis, and remains of an inscribed base (Inscr. Gr./2, I, 400) show that it was a votive gift dedicated by the cavalry to commemorate the victories of Pericles (c. 446 bc). Another statue in Athens, near the prytaneion, depicted Autolykos, a champion wrestler at the Panathenaic games of 422 bc (Pausanias: I.xviii.3 and IX.xxxii.5), while the statues of The Argonauts and a youth blowing on a dying fire were also attributed to Lykios by Pliny (XXXIV.xix.79). The Ionians from Apollonia commissioned Lykios to set up a monument near the hippodameion at Olympia to commemorate a military victory of the ...

Article

Nancy Serwint

(fl c. 370–c. 300 bc).

Greek sculptor. He was the greatest sculptor from the school at Sikyon, then an artistic centre second only to Athens, and ancient sources classed him with Myron of Eleutherai, Pheidias, and Polykleitos as being among the most accomplished sculptors in bronze. His brother Lysistratos was also a sculptor.

Establishing accurate dates for Lysippos’ career is problematic, both because no original works survive and because of disputes over the attribution of copies and the dates of signed statue bases. Pliny dated the height of his activity to 328–325 bc (XXXIV.xix.51) because of his close connection with Alexander the Great. Other literary and epigraphic sources, however, indicate that he had a long and active career that probably spanned much of the 4th century bc.

Lysippos was probably influenced by the Sikyonian painter Eupompos (fl c. 410–c. 310 bc), but there is no evidence that they were contemporaries. A statue of Troilos, set up at Olympia to commemorate equestrian victories in 372 ...

Article

Andrew F. Stewart

(fl later 4th century bc).

Greek sculptor, brother of Lysippos. Pliny dated the artist, like his brother, from Sikyon, to the 113th Olympiad (328–325 bc) and wrote that he developed a method of taking plaster casts from the human body and face, then pouring wax into this to produce a perfect portrait likeness that was ready for moulding and casting. (Early studies of Greek bronze-casting misinterpreted this to mean that he actually invented the indirect method of lost-wax casting, which is clearly untrue: the indirect method is known in large-scale sculpture two full centuries before.) Surviving bronzes from this and the Hellenistic period suggest that these wax likenesses were almost certainly selectively retouched in order to heighten key features and so bring out the character of the sitter.

Nevertheless, Pliny’s observation that portraits thenceforth aimed at likeness rather than beauty is correct, for Hellenistic sculptors usually began with the individual rather than taking an ideal type and individualizing it to a greater or lesser extent, as earlier. Lysistratos also used master-moulds for overcasting variations on the same type, and he and his ...