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J. D. Hawkins

[Lat. Europus; now Jerabis, Jerablus]

Site in Turkey on the west bank of the River Euphrates, now on the Turkish-Syrian border. This ancient city is extensively attested in cuneiform records from the mid-3rd to mid-1st millennia bc and mentioned in New Kingdom Egyptian records, c. 1500–1200 bc, and in the Old Testament. It is the source of indigenous sculpture and associated hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions dating c. 1000–700 bc. Excavations commissioned by the British Museum (1878–81) recovered some inscribed sculptures. Regular excavations under C. L. Woolley (1911–14 and 1920) were broken off by war, and latterly the establishment of the Turkish–Syrian frontier immediately to the south of the site has precluded further excavation. Finds are in the British Museum in London and in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara.

Carchemish has produced evidence of occupation stretching back to the Chalcolithic period (c. 5300 bc) and has a long recorded history. First attested in the Ebla archives ...


Eric Gubel

Term applied to the civilization of the city of Carthage (see Carthage, §1) on the north coast of Africa and its colonies in the western Mediterranean and on the Atlantic coasts of North Africa and Spain during the 1st millennium bc. Carthage was founded by the Phoenician people, traditionally in 814/813 bc by the exiled princess Elissa (also known as Dido) from Tyre (now in the Lebanon); this date is widely accepted, although excavations have not revealed any material earlier than the 8th century bc. Carthage became the catalyst for Phoenician power in the western Mediterranean and developed rapidly. The city successfully countered Greek colonization in the west and established a first colony at Ibiza in 654/653 bc; this was soon followed by others in Sardinia and western Sicily. In the 6th century bc the political and economic expansion of Carthage led to a cultural boom in which its colonies participated, particularly ...