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Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1871; died 1957.

Painter. Figures, genre scenes, animals.

Edmund Adler, who painted in an extremely controlled Realist style as far as detail is concerned, specialised in scenes from childhood.

New York, 13 Oct 1978: Children Watching a Frog in a Jar...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1777, in Rome; died 1858.

Sculptor.

Carlo Albacini was inspired by Canova but sought to give his works a more Realist expression, which reduced them to exaggeration. His Realism ultimately bordered on coarseness, notably in some of his statuettes which appeared in the Chapel of Pescivendoli in Rome. Copies of statues of the antiquities are attributed to him, including ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 November 1854, in Naples.

Sculptor.

Vincenzo Alfano was a pupil of Morelli and Palizzi. He was one of the most interesting personalities of the Italian Realist school. Abandoning Classical formulas, he sought to give life's emotional intensity to his terracotta objects. His work attracted both violent opposition and ardent support. His statue of ...

Article

(b Orléans, March 7, 1817; d Paris, Feb 26, 1878).

French painter. He was taught at the school of drawing in Orléans by a local painter, François Salmon (1781–1855). On 9 October 1837 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, first in the atelier of Sebastien Norblin de la Gourdaine (1796–1884). A year later he became a pupil of Paul Delaroche, from whom he acquired his understanding of dramatic composition.

Antigna exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1841 with a religious canvas, the Birth of Christ (untraced), and showed there every year for the rest of his life. Until 1845 his exhibits were primarily religious scenes and portraits. Influenced by the effects of industrialization and the sufferings of the urban working class, which he witnessed at first hand while living in the poor quarter of the Ile St Louis in Paris, he turned towards contemporary social subjects dominated by poverty and hardship. The ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 March 1817, in Orléans; died 26 February 1878, in Paris.

Painter. Religious subjects, genre scenes.

Realism.

Alexandre Antigna travelled to Paris at the suggestion of André Salamon, then professor of composition at a college in Orléans. He enrolled in Norblin's workshop before going on to work for seven years under the direction of Paul Delaroche. He exhibited at Paris salons on a regular basis from 1841 and was awarded the Légion d'Honneur in 1861. His work was principally on religious themes but, from 1841 to 1846, he took an increasing interest in genre painting. His style brings together observation of nature with studio poses and mannerisms observed from painters such as Daumier....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 1854, in Argentière-La-Bessée (Hautes-Alpes); died 1921, in Beaume-des-Arnauds (Hautes-Alpes).

Painter. Landscapes.

Marie Joséphine Arnaud's landscapes have a quality of such objective Realism that they evoke what was later to become Hyperrealistic painting.

Gap (Mus. départemental): Farmyard in Ribiers

Article

Hilary Morgan

[Fr. L’Art pour l’art]

Concept that emphasizes the autonomous value of art and regards preoccupations with morality, utility, realism and didacticism as irrelevant or inimical to artistic quality. It was the guiding principle of the Aesthetic Movement.

In France the phrase ‘l’art pour l’art’ first appeared in print in 1833, but the concept had been popularized earlier by Madame de Staël’s De l’Allemagne (Paris, 1813) and Victor Cousin’s philosophy lectures at the Sorbonne, Du vrai, du beau et du bien (1816–18; pubd Paris, 1836). Théophile Gautier was its main literary publicist, especially in the preface to his novel Mademoiselle de Maupin (Paris, 1835). Studies of l’art pour l’art, such as Cassagne’s, concentrate on the Second Empire literary movement (1851–70) that included Charles Baudelaire, Gautier, Edmond and Jules de Goncourt and the Parnassian poets. The application of the term to art criticism and visual art is uncharted, but it seems to have been used sufficiently loosely to embrace stylistically opposed artists. ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 26 June 1844, in Brienne-le-Château; died 23 January 1931, in Périgueux.

Painter. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes. Wall decorations.

Realism.

Jules-Charles Aviat was the son of a bolting (flour-sifting) machine operator, Jean Baptiste Mauperrin, and Marie Marguerite Doux. After the death of her husband, Marie married Pierre Antoine Aviat by whom she had two more children. In ...

Article

Norwegian, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 21 January 1845, in Holmestrand; died 1932, in Oslo.

Painter. Portraits, interiors with figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Realism.

Harriet Backer studied under J.F. Eckersberg at the school he established in Oslo. After spending time in Berlin and Weimar, she continued her studies in Italy in ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

French family of painters. Jean-Antoine Bail (b Chasseley, Rhône, 8 April 1830; d Nesle-la-Vallée, 20 Oct 1919) was largely self-taught, but he received some training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon before showing the intimate, monochromatic Artist’s Studio (Saint-Etienne, Mus. A. & Indust.) at the Salon there in 1854. He subsequently showed works at the Paris Salon, beginning in 1861 with The Cherries (untraced), and he exhibited at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français, Paris, until 1898. He was recognized by contemporary critics as the artist who best exemplified the realist tradition in provincial themes. He used models who posed in his studio on the Ile St Louis for his paintings of cooks and maids, and many of his interior scenes, with their intimate figural groupings and close attention to detail, display an awareness of Chardin and Dutch 17th-century painting. Sensitive portraits such as the ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Painter. Genre scenes.

Giorgio Baldero continued in the much-criticised 'realist' bambocciati style - originally popularized in Rome by the 17th-century Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592-1642) - that revived and sustained the tenebrist naturalism of Caravaggio.

Paris, 10 Dec 1982...

Article

Valérie M. C. Bajou

(b Montpellier, Dec 6, 1841; d Beaune-la-Rolande, Nov 28, 1870).

French painter. The son of a senator, he was born into the wealthy Protestant middle class in Montpellier. He soon came into contact with the contemporary and still controversial painting of Eugène Delacroix and Gustave Courbet through the Montpellier collector, Alfred Bruyas. In response to his family’s wishes he began to study medicine in 1860. He moved to Paris in 1862 and devoted his time increasingly to painting. In November 1862 he entered the studio of Charles Gleyre where he produced academic life drawings (examples in Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) and made friends with the future Impressionists, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. When the studio closed in 1863, he did not look for another teacher but followed his friends to Chailly, near the forest of Fontainebleau, where he made studies from nature (e.g. Study of Trees; priv. col.). From 1863 he took an active part in Parisian musical life, attending the Pasdeloup and Conservatoire concerts. He developed a passion for opera (Berlioz and Wagner in particular) and German music (Beethoven and Schumann). He attended the salon of his cousins, the Lejosne family, where Henri Fantin-Latour, Charles Baudelaire, Edmond Maître, Renoir and Edouard Manet were frequent guests, and at the end of ...

Article

Marisa J. Pascucci

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 1, 1890; d New York, NY, Feb 12, 2002).

American painter. Raised in Philadelphia she studied at the Philadelphia College of Design for Women (now Moore College of Art & Design) under Elliott Daingerfield (1859–1932), Daniel Garber (1880–1958), Samuel Murray (1869–1941), Harriet Sartain (1873–1957), and Henry B. Snell and graduated in 1911. With her mother, she toured Europe in 1905 and 1912. After returning from her second trip to Europe she settled in New York where her father had recently relocated the family. She lived at home and studied briefly at Art Students League taking life and portrait classes with William Merritt Chase. She eventually established her own studio in Manhattan and married William Meyerowitz (1898–1981), a painter and etcher. She was associated with the members of The Eight and part of the Ashcan school. She was an original member of the Philadelphia Ten—a group of female painters and sculptors schooled in Philadelphia who exhibited together annually, sometimes more often, from ...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Grüneberg, June 28, 1865; d Dresden, Feb 1, 1910).

German writer and publisher. From 1892 to 1894 he edited the Freie Bühne (later renamed Neue deutsche Rundschau), the Berlin-based magazine that acted as the chief mouthpiece of literary naturalism. He took up the cause of modernist painting in his very first publication, A. Böcklin (1891), a text introducing 15 heliographs of the artist’s work, and this was followed by publications on Fritz von Uhde (1893; 1908) and on Hans Thoma (1904). In 1894, with Julius Meier-Graefe, Bierbaum founded Pan, which was to become the leading avant-garde journal of the period in Germany, notable for its typography and for the inventive integration of text and illustration. There were also reproductions of paintings, drawings and sculpture, and the list of contributors included Franz von Stuck, Thoma, von Uhde, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Max Klinger, Arnold Böcklin, Paul Signac, Georges Seurat, Félix Vallotton, ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1755, in Paris; died 24 January 1838, in Paris.

Painter. Genre scenes.

He was admitted into the Académie on 24 September 1785, and his painting The Naturalist earned him the title of Académicien on 7 June 1789. Among the works he exhibited at various Salons are ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1836; died 1905.

Painter. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, animals.

Böker's forceful and detailed draughtsmanship underpins his classically realist style.

New York, 14 Jan 1977: Young Girl and her Dog...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1817, in Paris; died 1887, in St-Germain-en-Laye.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes (including musical instruments), landscapes.

Realism.

François Bonvin's father was a game-keeper, first in Vaugirard and then in Montrouge. François Bonvin learnt to draw at a free course given in the Rue de l'École de Médecine, and after two years, forced to make his living, he became a type-setter, and then took a job in the Prefecture of Police. In his spare time he toured the museums, especially the Louvre, where he studied the Flemish and Dutch masters. He amassed sketches and watercolours of landscapes from life and portraits of the people he mixed with. In the evening he worked first at the Gobelins studio, and later at l'Académie Suisse. He first exhibited in 1847 with ...

Article

(b La Rochelle, Nov 30, 1825; d La Rochelle, Aug 19, 1905).

French painter. From 1838 to 1841 he took drawing lessons from Louis Sage, a pupil of Ingres, while attending the collège at Pons. In 1841 the family moved to Bordeaux where in 1842 his father allowed him to attend the Ecole Municipale de Dessin et de Peinture part-time, under Jean-Paul Alaux. In 1844 he won the first prize for figure painting, which confirmed his desire to become a painter. As there were insufficient family funds to send him straight to Paris he painted portraits of the local gentry from 1845 to 1846 to earn money. In 1846 he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of François-Edouard Picot. This was the beginning of the standard academic training of which he became so ardent a defender later in life. Such early works as Equality (1848; priv. col., see 1984–5 exh. cat., p. 141) reveal the technical proficiency he had attained even while still training. In ...

Article

(b Paris, April 25, 1824; d Paris, Oct 1888).

French painter. Born of creole parents, Boulanger became an orphan at 14. His uncle and guardian sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and then in 1840 to Paul Delaroche, whose prosaic Realism and dry, careful technique influenced Boulanger’s style of painting. A first visit to Algeria in 1845 gave him an interest in North African subjects, which was taken up later by his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1849 he won the Prix de Rome with Ulysses Recognized by his Nurse (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), in which he combined academic figure drawing with Pompeian touches inspired by Ingres’s Antiochus and Stratonice (1840; Chantilly, Mus. Condé). Boulanger’s knowledge of the ruins at Pompeii, which he visited while studying at the Ecole de Rome, gave him ideas for many future pictures, including the Rehearsal in the House of the Tragic Poet (1855; St Petersburg, Hermitage), in which the influence of ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1857, in Rotterdam; died 1923, in Aerdenhout.

Painter. Figure compositions, nudes, portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes.

Realism.

Although his talent was never fully acknowledged in his native Netherlands, George Breitner is regarded by some art historians as Holland's most representative painter of the late 19th century (albeit with the notable exception of Vincent van Gogh). Breitner studied at the Academy in The Hague, where he was influenced by Willem Maris. In 1884, during a seven-month stay in Paris, he was exposed to the work of the Impressionists and Neo-Impressionists and also to Japanese art. He subsequently proved capable of assimilating these various influences while continuing to acknowledge in his work the long artistic tradition of his native Holland....