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Article

Madeleine Fidell-Beaufort

(b New York, March 17, 1822; d New York, Aug 11, 1904)

American wood-engraver, art dealer, collector and philanthropist. Avery’s career as a wood-engraver and his involvement with the New York publishing trade began in the early 1840s. He worked for, among others, Appleton’s, the New York Herald and Harper’s and produced illustrations for trade cards, religious tracts, adventure stories and children’s books. By the early 1850s Avery had begun compiling humorous books and commissioning drawings from such artist-illustrators as Felix Octavius Carr Darley, John Whetten Ehninger, Augustus Hoppin (1827–96), Tompkins Harrison Matteson and John McLenan (1827–66). His business contacts led to close relationships with such artists as Frederick Church, John F. Kensett and William Trost Richards.

By the late 1850s Avery had begun to collect drawings and small cabinet pictures by local artists. Other art collectors, notably William T. Walters, asked Avery’s advice when commissioning works of art. In 1864 he turned his engraving practice over to ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

(b Paris, Feb 11, 1830; d Parays, Tarn-et-Garonne, June 3, 1890).

French critic, collector and etcher. He studied drawing and painting before becoming art critic of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1859. His extensive articles examined such issues as the etching revival (see Etching, §II, 4), modernization of the industrial arts, the cult of Japonisme and Impressionism. With his notices in the newspaper Le Rappel (1869–71) and the avant-garde journal La Renaissance littéraire et artistique (1871–2), the periodical of the emerging Symbolist poets, Burty passionately espoused the taste for Japanese art and culture and coined the term Japonisme in 1872. His apartment, which contained a vast collection of Japanese works of art, attracted many collectors also fascinated by Japan, including Edmond de Goncourt, Félix Bracquemond and Edgar Degas. Burty’s meetings and his collection and staunch advocacy of Japonisme influenced many, including his Impressionist friends, in whose compositions the subtle assimilation of Japanese print design is evident. The marriage of Burty’s daughter Madeleine to the entrepreneur ...

Article

Flemish School, 19th century, male.

Born 13 September 1814, in Sept-Fontaines, near Luxembourg; died 19 February 1853, in Ghent.

Engraver, collector.

Article

Andrew W. Moore

(b Norwich, Dec 22, 1768; d Norwich, April 22, 1821).

English painter, printmaker, collector and teacher. The son of a journeyman weaver, he was apprenticed to a coach and sign painter, Francis Whisler, from 1783 to 1790. He presumably continued in this trade and during the 1790s consolidated his artistic training. Early local influences upon Crome included William Beechey and John Opie, but the friendship of Thomas Harvey, a patron, collector and amateur artist, was the most significant. Harvey’s collection included works by Dutch 17th-century masters such as Aelbert Cuyp, Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema, and also works by Gainsborough and Richard Wilson. The earliest record of Wilson’s influence is provided by two oils entitled Composition in the Style of Wilson (untraced), dated 1796 and 1798 in Crome’s Memorial Exhibition of 1821. The Dutch influence was also strong throughout Crome’s career. Crome’s early acquaintance with Harvey and his collection almost certainly encouraged him to become a collector, and the Yarmouth banker ...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1813, in Hanover, New Hampshire; died 31 July 1867, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Photographer, lithographer, inventor.

James A. Cutting’s earliest success was as the designer of a beehive patented in 1844. Later in the 1840s he was associated with several patents for railroad equipment, and in the 1850s he turned his attention to photographic experimentation. In ...

Article

Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Oct 25, 1737; d Paris, June 2, 1824).

French engraver and print-seller. He belonged to a family of Lyonnais engravers that included his father, Jean-Louis Daudet (1695–1756), an engraver of illustrations and print-seller, and another Robert Daudet, probably his uncle (fl 1728–33). He may have attended the classes of Jean-Charles Frontier (1701–63) at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon (founded in 1757). In 1766 he is documented as entering the workshop of Jean-Georges Wille. There he engraved plates for Wille and for Jacques-Philippe Lebas and Pierre-François Basan. He was also active as a dealer. His correspondence with the Lyonnais artist Jean-Jacques de Boissieu reveals that he saw to the sale of the latter’s drawings and prints in Paris.

Daudet’s engraved work amounts to 82 pieces and consists exclusively of reproductive prints, often after a preliminary etching done by another printmaker. He specialized in reproducing the work of such fashionable 17th-century Dutch artists as ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, May 7, 1869; d Paris, Nov 9, 1927).

French collector, writer and etcher. He began to collect prints at the age of 13 and rapidly established a reputation as a connoisseur and expert, particularly in the field of modern prints. His principal work is the 31-volume series Le Peintre-graveur illustré (Paris, 1906–30); his other publications include works on 19th- and 20th-century prints and c. 500 auction-room catalogues. His own etchings were exhibited at the Salons of 1888 and 1897, and he was an officer of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français and the Société pour l’Etude de la Gravure Française. His first print collection was sold at auction in 1890, the second in Paris, 13–15 June 1928, comprising 404 lots of modern prints.

with N. A. Hazard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre lithographié de H. Daumier (Paris, 1904) Le Peintre-graveur illustré, 31 vols (Paris, 1906–30) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes du XVIII siècle (Paris, 1910) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes des XIX et XX siècles...

Article

(b Cérilly, nr Moulins, Aug 26, 1823; d Nice, Feb 18, 1902).

French painter, printmaker, collector and writer. Born into a wealthy, aristocratic family, he showed an early talent for drawing but initially trained and registered as a lawyer, though he never practised. In 1845 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, studying first under the sculptor Louis-Jules Etex (1810–89) and from 1847–8 under Thomas Couture. From 1849 to 1854 he travelled—to England, Belgium, the Netherlands and finally to Italy, where in 1854 he bought the historic Villa dell’Ombrellino in Bellosguardo outside Florence. He lived there until his return to Paris in 1872, building up an art collection and making engravings. The content of his purportedly large collection has not been established, though he is known to have had a particular love for early Italian Renaissance works and also paintings from the Spanish school. While in Italy he wrote several plays, of which one, Maurice de Saxe, was performed at the Comédie Française, Paris, in ...

Article

Dennis Rose

English family of graphic artists and painters. John Dighton was a print-seller; his son Robert Dighton (i) (b ?London, ?1752; d London, 1814) exhibited drawings annually from the age of 17 (at first calling himself Deighton) at the Society of Artists and the Free Society. Robert entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1772 and contributed to the Academy exhibitions. He eventually settled at 4 Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, where he owned a print shop and gave drawing lessons, calling himself a drawing-master. By the 1790s he had produced many watercolours and coloured engravings, including A Book of Heads, and had become well known as an actor–singer at Sadler’s Wells Theatre.

Robert was often in financial difficulties and as a remedy stole prints from the British Museum, including a Rembrandt landscape that he competently copied and sold to a dealer. When the theft was traced to Dighton in 1806...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 30 June 1798, in Edinburgh; died 15 May 1869, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, writer, collector. Botanical subjects, insects.

Alexander Dyce was an amateur sketcher and painter. His watercolours and drawings were chiefly of flowers and butterflies.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): ...

Article

Júlia Papp

[Antal]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovak Republic], 1784; d Vienna, July 13, 1852)

Hungarian engraver, publisher and dealer. He studied under his father József Ehrenreich (1765–1842), a seal engraver, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibányi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788–1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, József Ürményi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, István Ferenczy, Ferdinánd Jakab Miller and Benedek Virág. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudományos Gyüjtemény...

Article

Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 5 May 1852, in Lully, near Morges; died 24 December 1922, in Morges.

Engraver (etching), collector. Urban landscapes, landscapes.

Alexis Forel was both an artist and a chemical engineer. After making a name for himself in science through his study of aniline paints, he moved to Paris and took up etching in ...

Article

[Van Ryssel]

(b Lille, July 30, 1828; d Auvers-sur-Oise, Val d’Oise, Jan 9, 1909).

French doctor, collector, painter and engraver. In 1848 he began to study medicine in Paris, where he frequented the Bohemian circles of Amand(-Désiré) Gautier, Gustave Courbet and Champfleury. In 1857 he visited Montpellier, where he met the great collector Alfred Bruyas; it was probably through him that he came to know Paul Guigou, Adolphe Monticelli and Auguste Cézanne, Paul Cézanne’s father. In 1858 Gachet was awarded a doctorate by the University of Montpellier for his thesis Etudes sur la mélancolie. On his return to Paris he established a medical practice; among his patients were the engraver Charles Meryon and Rachel Pissarro, mother of Camille Pissarro. The turning-point in his life came when in 1872 he bought a property at Auvers-sur-Oise; his house there became a haven for the Impressionist painters.

In the same year Gachet began to collect seriously, buying 18 small paintings by Guigou at the latter’s studio sale. He acquired many works from his painter friends and lent ...

Article

Régis Marin

(b Besançon, Jan 6, 1806; d Paris, Dec 11, 1894).

French painter, lithographer, illustrator and collector. The son of a blacksmith, he attended the school of drawing in Besançon. He left for Paris and in 1828–9 frequented the Ecole des Beaux-Arts while executing various minor works. He made his début at the Salon in 1831 with a number of drawings. He established himself at the Salons of 1833 and 1834 with such sentimental compositions as Henry IV Writing Verses to Gabrielle, St Lambert at Versailles, Count de Comminges, Fortune-telling and such portraits as Laviron and The Blacksmith (1886; unless otherwise stated, all works are in Besançon, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.; many drawings in Lille, Mus. B.-A. and Rouen, Mus. B.-A.). His portrait of the Phalansterist Fourier (1836) confirmed the success he had achieved as a history painter with the Last Moments of Leonardo da Vinci (1835).

In 1836 Gigoux travelled to Italy with his students ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1853, in Paris; died 1903.

Engraver, collector.

Charles Gillot was the son of Firmin Gillot, inventor of the gillotage etching technique (whereby a waxy ink is rolled onto sidewalls of lines and dots to prevent lateral etching). Charles Gillot had an impressive collection of medieval and Japanese art, which fetched a large sum (827,000 francs) at posthumous auction on ...

Article

David Scott

French family of writers, critics, printmakers, painters and collectors. Edmond de Goncourt (b Nancy, 26 May 1822; d Champrosay, 16 July 1896) and his brother Jules de Goncourt (b Paris, 17 Dec 1830; d Paris, 20 June 1870) were born into a minor aristocratic family. Their father, Marc-Pierre Huot de Goncourt, died in 1834, and after the death of their mother, Annette-Cécile Guérin, in 1848 they were sufficiently well-off to set up as painters. Jules was notably talented, his etchings being published in 1876. However, the Goncourts soon turned to literature, in which, in a remarkable collaboration that lasted until the death of Jules in 1870, they made their name, first as journalists and historians, and a little later as novelists and art critics. Their finest and best-known works, such as L’Art du XVIIIe siècle (published in 12 fascicles between 1859 and 1875) and Manette Salomon...

Article

Katharine A. Lochnan

(b London, Sept 16, 1818; d Bramdean, Hants, June 1, 1910).

English surgeon, etcher and collector. In 1838 he completed his medical studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, where he attended a government art training school and learnt to draw and etch. After travelling in Italy and Switzerland in 1844, he took over his late father’s London practice. In 1845 he began to study and collect etchings, becoming a notable Rembrandt specialist. In 1847 he married Deborah Whistler, half-sister of James McNeill Whistler. Haden began to etch seriously in 1858 and a close collaboration with Whistler developed. In 1864 the Paris critic Philippe Burty lauded Haden in an article in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts and in 1866 published a portfolio of his landscape etchings, Etudes à l’eau forte, which brought international acclaim. Whistler’s jealousy of Haden led to a fight in a Paris café in 1867; they never spoke again. Haden’s finest plates include such landscape subjects as Fulham (Harrington, no. 19) and the ...

Article

(b Lille, 1743; d Paris, ?1806–9).

French engraver and printseller. One of the first pupils at the free school of drawing in Lille, he studied under Louis-Jean Guéret (fl 1767–77) and Louis-Joseph Watteau. He completed his training in the Paris studio of Jacques-Philippe Lebas and is considered one of his best pupils. By 1777 his reputation as an engraver of genre scenes was well established. Among his most successful works are those he engraved after Jean-Michel Moreau for the second Suite d’estampes pour servir à l’histoire des modes et du costume en France, which illustrates the life of a fashionable young mother (e.g. N’ayez pas peur, ma bonne amie, 1776; Paris, Bib. N. cat. no. 29; Les Délices de la maternité, 1777; Bib. N. cat. no. 30; L’Accord parfait, 1777; Bib. N. cat. no. 31), and those for the third suite, on the theme of a man about town (e.g. Le Souper fin, 1781...