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Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...

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Peter Boutourline Young

(b Eisenach, 1832; d Nuremberg, May 28, 1895).

German architect, architectural historian, lithographer and writer. He was in Rome for a few months in 1855–6. In the early 1860s he produced Ornamente der Renaissance aus Italien (1861), a collection of 24 lithographs of drawings taken from life, as well as Entwürfe zu Grabdenkmalen (1861) and two further collections, Ornamentenschule (1861) and Ornamente griechischen und römischen Stils (n.d.). In 1864 he published his collection of designs for shop-fronts, the Zeichnungen zu Schaufenstern, Waarenauslagen und Ladenvorbauen, in Weimar, where in 1866, together with F. Jaede, he founded the Atelier für Architektur und Kunstgewerbe (Studio for architecture and arts and crafts) and, the following year, the weekly review Kunst und Gewerbe. In 1873 Stegmann became Director of the Bayerisches Gewerbemuseum at Nuremberg. He also supervised work on the construction (1861–8) of the new building for the Ducal Museum (now Landesmuseum) in Weimar, designed by ...