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Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...

Article

Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Cádiz, ?1750; d Guatemala City, Sept 15, 1809).

Spanish engraver and architect, active in Guatemala. He studied in Cádiz around 1760, and in 1773 he moved to Madrid, where he was probably taught by the noted engraver Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1778 he was appointed assistant engraver of the Real Casa de Moneda in Guatemala, where he arrived the next year. Following the death of the principal engraver, he was confirmed in this post in 1783 and held it until his death. Besides his work as engraver of coin dies and medal stamps, Garci-Aguirre made numerous fine copperplate engravings for books (e.g. P. Ximena: Reales Exequias por el Señor Don Carlos III, Guatemala City, 1790) and other publications. In Guatemala he revived the art of engraving, working in the Neo-classical style, which he was one of the first to introduce to the country. He soon became involved with architectural works in connection with the building of the new capital of Guatemala City, first in the Real Casa de Moneda and then on other royal projects. From ...

Article

Philippe Durey

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Article

[Angelika ] (Catharina )

(b Chur, Graubünden, Oct 30, 1741; d Rome, Nov 5, 1807).

Swiss painter and etcher. She was a serious and prolific painter of portraits (see fig.) and one of relatively few women artists painting in the Neo-classical style to specialize in subject pictures as well. She attracted glittering and international patronage (the family of George III in Britain, Grand-Duke Paul and Prince Nikolay Yusupov in Russia, Stanislav II Poniatowski and Stanislav Kostka Potocki in Poland, Queen Caroline of Naples, and Emperor Joseph II of Austria) and was much admired by her fellow artists. In Rome she was accepted into the Accademia di S Luca at the precocious age of 23, and in London she was a founder-member of the Royal Academy and an invited participant in virtually every important public project involving painting, from the abortive scheme to decorate St Paul’s Cathedral to the decorations for the Royal Academy’s own rooms at Somerset House and John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery. The final tribute paid to Kauffman in Rome at her funeral, which was arranged by ...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(María)

(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...

Article

Vivian Atwater and Philippe Durey

French family of artists. Its most prominent members were (1) Pierre-Etienne Moitte, a late 18th-century engraver who worked after many contemporary artists, and his eldest son, (2) Jean-Guillaume Moitte, a sculptor and draughtsman in the Neo-classical style. Five of Pierre-Etienne’s other children became artists. François-Auguste Moitte (1748–90), Rose-Angélique Moitte and Elisabeth-Mélanie Moitte were engravers; Alexandre Moitte (1750–1828) became a painter, and Jean-Baptiste-Philibert Moitte (1754–1808) was an architect.

(b Paris, Jan 1, 1722; d Paris, Sept 4, 1780).

Engraver. He studied in Paris with Jacques-Firmin Beauvarlet and Pierre-François Beaumont (1719–?69). He was accepted (agréé) in 1771 by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and subsequently signed his prints ‘Graveur du Roi’. Between c. 1747 and 1754 he was one of the principal engravers commissioned to work for the Cabinet de S.E.M. Le Comte de Brühl, a collection published in Dresden in ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...

Article

(b Goyencourt, Nov 25, 1765; d Paris, Feb 13, 1840).

French designer, engraver and architect. He trained as an architect and in 1792 won the Grand Prix de Rome and travelled to Rome. He was responsible for thousands of engraved plates between 1800 and 1815, notably those for Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine’s Recueil de décorations intérieures (Paris, 1801), the seminal publication of the Empire style. Normand’s own designs in the Neo-classical style were published in his Décorations intérieures et extérieures (1803), on which he collaborated with the sculptor, Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet; its 48 plates include designs for furniture, vases and ornaments.

Recueil varié de plans et de façades (Paris, 1815) Nouveau parallèle des ordres (Paris, 1819); Eng. trans. by A. Pugin (London, 1829); Ger. trans. by M. H. Jacobi and M. March, 2 vols (Potsdam, 1830–36) with M. Normand: Modèles d’orfèvrerie (Paris, 1822) Cours de dessin industriel (Paris, 1823, rev. 1841) Le Guide de l’ornemaniste (Paris, 1826, rev. 1847)...

Article

Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1786; d Paris, March 15, 1868).

French painter and lithographer. He was a pupil of François-André Vincent and of Jacques-Louis David. He received the Second Grand Prix de Rome in 1811 and then continued his studies in Rome. On his return from Italy he received the commission to paint the Death of Sapphira (1819) for the church of St Séverin in Paris (in situ) and at the Salon of 1819 he exhibited Love and Psyche (1817; Paris, Louvre), which was admired for its graceful and naive figures and was bought by the Duc d’Orléans (later Louis-Philippe, King of France). At the Salon of 1827 Picot exhibited the Annunciation (La Rochelle Cathedral), a richly painted work that shows the influence of Raphael. Working within the Neo-classical style, he specialized in history and genre subjects and portraits and continued to show at the Salon until 1839.

Picot received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings, including two ceiling decorations for the ...

Article

Vivian Atwater

In 

Article

[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...

Article

Giovanna Uzzani

(b Florence, Feb 21, 1772; d Milan, Jan 29, 1850).

Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. After training in Florence in the Neo-classical tradition, he won a scholarship and settled in Rome between 1789 and 1794. His patron Tommaso Puccini was an intellectual and connoisseur who later became Director of the Gallerie Fiorentine. He was first attracted to the constructive rigour of François-Guillaume Ménageot, who taught at the Académie de France, but later he became interested in a more contemporary classicism in the style of David, and in particular in the rather austere variant represented by such pupils of David’s in Rome as François-Xavier Fabre. Sabatelli borrowed explicitly from Classical works, as can be seen in his reconstruction of the furnishings, clothing and hairstyles of the Roman period, and in his use of a type of drawing practised by the followers of David. His borrowings were more from the style of Classical art than from its philology, yet his paintings were nonetheless clearly liberated from tradition. There was an emphasis on severity and intensity, sparse, angular, compositions and pronounced contrasts. After a stay in Venice, he returned to Florence in ...

Article

Pontus Grate and Sten Åke Nilsson

(b Stockholm, Aug 28, 1740; d Stockholm, Feb 26, 1814).

Swedish sculptor, draughtsman and etcher.

Pontus Grate

Sergel was the son of a German saddler and embroiderer who had settled in Sweden in 1739. He studied drawing under Jean Eric Rehn and sculpture under Pierre-Hubert L’Archevêque (1721–78), whom he accompanied on a journey to France in 1758. While there, he studied for seven months at the Académie Royale in Paris, coming under the influence of Edme Bouchardon. Following his return to Sweden, he collaborated with L’Archevêque, but also worked independently, executing portrait medallions and also studying etching with Per Gustaf Floding. In 1767 he made a journey to Rome, where he remained for 11 years; this marked the turning-point in his career. He discovered that ‘the only masters to follow were antiquity and nature’. Classical antiquity was his supreme exemplar, but to this admiration he brought a fertile imagination, exuberant realism and virile sensuality. At the Académie de France in Rome he devoted himself to intensive studies of life models and of Classical sculpture and plaster casts; he also studied such Old Masters as Raphael, Michelangelo, Domenichino, Annibale Carracci and Bernini. His own earliest works were chiefly imitations of Antique works, but he gradually came to find inspiration in reality....

Article

R. H. Davis jr and Edward Kasinec

[Tomon; Toma de]

(b Nancy, Dec 21, 1754; d St Petersburg, 22–23 Aug 1813).

French architect, engraver and painter, active mainly in Russia. He was educated at the Académie Royale d’Architecture, Paris, and from 1780 in Rome, where he sketched Classical sites in the city and elsewhere in Italy. As a royalist he left France in the wake of the Revolution and settled successively in Vienna, Eisenstadt and Russia (1798). In 1800 he was elected an Academician. He was appointed court architect on 30 January 1802 and Professor of Architecture at the Imperial Academy on 11 December 1802. Thomon’s major works include the reconstruction of the Bolshoi Theatre (1803; destr. 1813), Moscow. Its design was influenced by Charles de Wailly’s Odéon in Paris: a long rectangle housing a horseshoe-shaped auditorium, with various foyers and salons filling the intervening space. The two-storey façade featured a portico of eight Ionic columns.

In St Petersburg, Thomon built the Stock Exchange (1805–10; now the ...

Article

(b Dresden, Oct 23, 1775; d Dresden, Feb 11, 1842).

German architect and illustrator. He studied architecture and perspective (1791–5) with Gottlob August Hölzer (1744–1814). As little was built in Dresden until the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), he devoted himself to architectural and landscape drawings, often using them as a basis for engravings and etchings. These included the series of plates Dresden mit seinen Prachtgebäuden und schönsten Umgebungen (Dresden, 1807–8). He was appointed court inspector in 1810, subsequently rebuilding the Fürstenschule in Meissen and designing festive decorations for Napoleon’s entry into Dresden (1812) and the return of the king of Saxony (1815). In 1813 he visited Italy and in the same year supervised the rebuilding of the Marienkirche at Bischofswerda, near Dresden, where he later built the Rathaus (1818), a simple cube with a pyramidal roof. His particular Neo-classical style emerged in his designs of ...

Article

Maria Cristina Bandera Viani

(b Florence, Nov 2, 1727; d Milan, Nov 14, 1812).

Italian painter and engraver. He trained in Florence with Agostino Veracini (1689–1762) and Francesco Conti (1681–1760), and studied architecture and stage design under Antonio Galli-Bibiena. His earliest known painting is a fresco of 1758: Heavenly Father in Glory in the Dominican church in Livorno. He enriched his art by the study of Correggio’s works in Parma, and also those of Bolognese painters, making engravings (1764–7) after paintings by Guido Reni, Agostino Carracci, Annibale Carracci, Guercino and others. These were praised in 1765 by Pierre-Jean Mariette and were later collected in an album entitled Venticinque quadri ai maestri eccellenti incisi da Giuliano Traballesi (Milan, 1796).

In 1764 he won a competition at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Parma with the painting Furius Camillus Liberating Rome from the Gallic Senones, a work that is deeply influenced by the Bolognese tradition and by the Roman classicism of Nicolas Poussin. The success of this painting won Traballesi major commissions in his native Tuscany, where the transition from Rococo to Neo-classicism had been encouraged by the reforms initiated by Leopoldo II Habsburg-Lorraine when he became Grand Duke of Tuscany in ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Celaya, Oct 13, 1759; d Celaya, Aug 3, 1833).

Mexican architect, painter, engraver, and sculptor. He studied painting under Miguel Cabrera at the Real Academia de las Nobles Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City but did not graduate. He subsequently took up wood-carving and engraving. He learnt the elements of architecture from the Jesuits, who gave him a copy of the writings of Jacopo Vignola. His architecture exhibits a familiarity with the classic treatises, although he never visited Europe. Tresguerras’s first major work (1780s) was the reconstruction in Neo-classical style of the convent church of S Rosa, Querétaro, originally consecrated in 1752. The dome over the crossing is set on a drum articulated by rusticated columns, which flank a series of round-headed openings. He is also credited with remodelling the interior of the convent church of S Clara, Querétaro, and with constructing the Neptune Fountain (1802–7) in the plaza in front of it. The god stands under a triumphal arch, while water pours through the mouth of a fish at his feet. Tresguerras also completed (...

Article

Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...