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Article

Dutch, 19th century, male.

Born 13 September 1833, in Zalt-Bommel; died 2 February 1897, in Amsterdam.

Engraver, photographer.

Article

Canadian, 19th century, male.

Born 2 November 1828, in St Andrews (New Brunswick); died 9 January 1901, in Providence (Rhode Island).

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, photographer. Portraits, religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

Bannister's father was form Barbados and his mother was Scottish. He was born in Canada right after slavery was abolished. He went to live in New York were he was a sailor and settled in Boston in ...

Article

revised by Stephanie Spencer and Sophie Gordon

(b London, Aug 13, 1815; d London, May 15, 1894).

English printmaker and photographer. His first known works are architectural drawings exhibited at the Royal Academy in the 1840s, which documented buildings designed by his architect father Francis Octavius Bedford (1784–1858). He quickly turned to engraving, design, and lithography, working for Standidge & Co., and later Day & Son. He continued to produce lithographs until c. 1858, contributing to many significant publications on British design and manufacturing. He took up photography around 1853 initially to assist with the accuracy of his lithographic work, photographing works of art in the Marlborough House museum (later the South Kensington Museum) for Henry Cole. In 1854 he exhibited for the first time in the Photographic Society of London exhibition. Bedford continued to exhibit widely in British and international exhibitions throughout the 1850s and 1860s. He concentrated primarily on landscape and architectural scenes, often made during annual tours of southern England and Wales (...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active mid-19th century.

Draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Article

Bertall  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 18 December 1820, in Paris; died 24 March 1883, in Soyons (Ardèche).

Draughtsman, engraver (wood), lithographer, illustrator, photographer.

Albert d'Arnoux elected to paint under this pseudonym at the suggestion of Honoré de Balzac. He emerged as one of the most prolific illustrators of the second half of the 19th century but, although his drawings are amusing, they lack any distinctive personality. He was chosen by the publishing house Barba to illustrate popular editions of the works of Fenimore Cooper, Paul de Kock, Pigault-Lebrun and others, and is reputed to have engraved some 3,600 plates for Barba alone. Bertall also furnished numerous comic illustrations for magazines such as ...

Article

Antoine Terrasse

(b Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, Oct 3, 1867; d Le Cannet, Jan 27, 1947).

French painter, printmaker and photographer. He is known particularly for the decorative qualities of his paintings and his individual use of colour. During his life he was associated with other artists, Edouard Vuillard being a good friend, and he was a member of the Nabis.

Bonnard spent some of his childhood at Grand-Lemps in the Isère, where his family owned a house surrounded by a large park. There was a farm adjoining the house, and from an early age he developed a love of nature and animals. After obtaining the baccalauréat at 18, he enrolled in the Law faculty in order to please his father, who wanted him to have a steady job. He graduated when he was 21, and he was sworn in as a barrister in 1889. In the meantime he was already drawing and painting, having enrolled at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1887. In an attractive ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1 September 1814, in London; died February 1896, in Brentford.

Watercolourist, lithographer, photographer. Railways, landscapes.

John Cooke Bourne was a pupil of the landscape engraver John Pye and was influenced by the watercolours of Thomas Girton and John Sell Cotman. At the age of 22, Bourne began sketching the construction work of the London and Birmingham Railway which was underway near his home in North London. The writer John Britton encouraged Bourne to translate his watercolours into lithographs, and in ...

Article

Italo Zannier

(b Florence, April 6, 1822; d Florence, Nov 29, 1881).

Italian photographer and engraver. He began c. 1855 to deal in photographic prints, after working for some years as a copper engraver with the engraver (and later photographer) Achille Paris (1820–84). Brogi had also worked with the print publisher Batelli from the age of 11, and as the copper engraver and publisher Giuseppe Bardi’s print retoucher. He also attended, on a private basis, the school run by the engraver Perfetti. He probably learnt photography from the scientist Tito Puliti, whose photographic work at the Istituto di Fisica of the university from 1839 had pioneered the medium in Florence.

In 1860 Brogi set up his own photographic laboratory at Lungarno delle Grazie 15. He concentrated mainly on portraits, competing with the Alinari family whose studio was already flourishing but was devoted mainly to the reproduction of works of art, a field in which Brogi was less interested. He successfully exhibited a series of ‘natural and coloured artistic photographs’ at the first Esposizione Italiana, Agraria, Industriale, Artistica held in Florence in ...

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1810, in Geneva; died 1876, in Geneva.

Painter, engraver, photographer.

Chomel attended art schools in Geneva and also studied under Détalla and Auguste Bovet. He often exhibited in his native city and left behind pictures of military scenes kept by the Rath museum. Chomel held the post of president of Geneva's administrative council and was a member of the arts council....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1813, in Hanover, New Hampshire; died 31 July 1867, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Photographer, lithographer, inventor.

James A. Cutting’s earliest success was as the designer of a beehive patented in 1844. Later in the 1840s he was associated with several patents for railroad equipment, and in the 1850s he turned his attention to photographic experimentation. In ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 July 1834, in Paris, France; died 26 September 1917, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, sculptor, printmaker (monotypes, etchings, aquatints, lithographs), draughtsman, photographer. History painting, figures, nudes, portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, sporting subjects.

Japonisme.

Impressionist group.

Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas was born in Paris into a well-to-do banking family. His father, whose family originated from Breton nobility, was born in Naples and his Creole mother, Célestine Musson, was born in New Orleans. She died in 1847 when Degas was 13 years old. His grandfather (who had left France at the time of the French Revolution) and his father always signed their names ‘de Gas’, a usage that Edgar continued until about 1870. He only signed works when he sold or exhibited them, and after his death, the executors of his estate stamped red signatures on all the works in his studio. Degas rarely dated his works....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 April 1857, in Ipswich (Massachusetts); died 13 December 1922, in New York.

Painter, engraver (wood), draughtsman, designer, illustrator, potter, photographer. Landscapes.

Arthur Wesley Dow studied in Worcester with the painter Anna K. Freeland, then in Boston in the studio of the painter James M. Stone. In 1884 he travelled to Paris, where he was a pupil of Boulanger and of Lefebvre at the Académie Julian. On returning to Boston in 1889, he studied Aztec, Oceanian, African, Egyptian and, above all, Japanese art. In 1893 he became assistant curator of Japanese art at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. In the 1890s Dow became an avid photographer and made photographs as studies and as works of art. The majority of his photographs are of the landscape around Ipswich and botanical subjects. He printed most often in cyanotype, which renders the image in bright shades of blue and reveals Dow’s interest in tonality. For example, Dory (1904) explores the transitions between low-lying marsh grass and still water in an arrangement inspired by the Japanese woodblock prints he admired....

Article

Nancy E. Green

(b Ipswich, MA, April 6, 1857; d New York, NY, Dec 13, 1922).

American painter, printmaker, photographer, writer and teacher. Dow took art classes in the Boston studio of James M. Stone, where he met Frank Duveneck, who would remain a lifelong friend. He went to Paris in 1884 to study at the Académie Julian with Jules(-Joseph) Lefebvre and Gustave(-Clarence-Rodolphe) Boulanger. Dow also took evening classes at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, where the American artist Francis D. Millet (1846–1912) offered critiques of the students’ work. Dow then spent some time in Pont-Aven, where he met Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard, and in Concarneau where he sought out the advice of American painter Alexander Harrison (1853–1930). Dow’s painting Au Soir won an honorable mention at the Universal Exposition in 1889 and two of his paintings were accepted that same year for the Paris Salon and were hung on the line (i.e. at eye-level).

Dow returned to Boston where he began independent studies at the Boston Public Library that led him to the work of Japanese artists ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1 May 1798, in Paris; died 25 June 1876, in Lyons.

Engraver (metal/wood).

Philippe Durand worked as an engraver in Lyons from 1830 to 1872, as a photographer from 1849 to 1862, and exhibited wood engravings at the Lyons Salon in ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Active in Germany from 1906.

Born 19 September 1865, in New York City; died 16 December 1936, in Munich, Germany.

Painter, photographer, etcher, draughtsman.Portraits, figures, landscapes, animals.

Pictorialism.

Photo-Secession, The Linked Ring.

Frank Eugene began his artistic career as a painter before devoting himself to photography in the Pictorial style. Eugene studied painting in New York in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 17 March 1825, in Lausanne; died 7 January 1902, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, photographer. Landscapes.

Article

(Seraph)

(b Baiernrain bei Bad Tölz, March 1, 1804; d Munich, April 18, 1877).

German lithographer and photographer. In 1816 he moved to Munich, where he studied drawing under the German sculptor Peter Schöpf (1757–1841) at the Polytechnische Schule and lithography under the German lithographer Hermann Josef Mitterer (1764–1829) at the Feiertagschule. From 1819 to 1825 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Munich. Acquiring a great mastery of lithography, he then worked as a portrait lithographer, producing works such as Otto I, King of Greece (1832; Vienna, Österreich. Nbib.). In 1833 he set up his own lithographic publishing house in Munich and the following year travelled to Paris to study under the lithographer Joseph Lemercier. In 1835 he was one of a number of artists commissioned by the government to provide lithographic reproductions of the paintings in the Königliche Gemäldegalerie in Dresden. Hanfstaengl in fact made the majority of these, 134 out of 195 being from his hand. The resulting prints were collected as ...

Article

David Rodgers

(b 1837; d London, Nov 21, 1933).

English engraver and photographer. He began his career as a mezzotint-engraver, reproducing two works by Edwin Henry Landseer, the Shepherd’s Grave and the Old Shepherd’s Chief Mourner (both London, V&A), both published by J. McQueen in 1869. In the early 1870s he was employed by Frederic Leighton to photograph paintings and drawings, which he carried out with exemplary skill. Under Leighton’s patronage his clients soon included Edward Burne-Jones, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and G. F. Watts and he established himself as the leading specialist in the photographic reproduction of paintings in England. His reproductions, which sold widely in Britain and Europe, did much to popularize the artists’ works. He was also a gifted portrait photographer and devoted one day a week to sitters from artistic and literary circles, producing photographs of Camille Pissarro, Walter Pater and John Ruskin.

O. Mathews: Early Photographs and Early Photographers (London, 1973) T. Browne and E. Parton...