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Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 19th century.

Engraver (burin).

Rocco d'Annibale is known to have engraved Giovanni Rossini after L. Liperini, and L. Demartini, Female Dancer in Milan after V. dal Favero.

Article

Danielle Derrey-Capon

(b Ghent, Jan 9, 1866; d Ghent, June 9, 1922).

Belgian painter and etcher . The son of a successful mill-owner and an excellent musician, he was a pupil and friend of Gustave Den Duyts (1850–97), and later, at the Ghent Académie, of Jean Delvin (1853–1922). He was involved in the exhibiting society L’Essor in Brussels as well as the triennial salons held in Brussels, Antwerp and Ghent in rotation. Among his earliest important works are The Scheldt at Dendermonde (1887; Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.), which he painted beside Isidore Meyers (1836–1917) and Franz Courtens in a Realist style characteristic of the Dendermonde school. In 1889–90 he attended the studio of Alfred Roll in Paris, where he met Jacques-Emile Blanche and Charles Cottet, and became particularly closely associated with Frits Thaulow, Emile-René Ménard and Edmond Aman-Jean. He exhibited regularly at the Salon in Paris. Although Baertsoen is considered to be one of the first Belgian ...

Article

19th century, male.

Engraver.

Engraved a portrait of the Viennese dancer Th. Heberle from an original by D. Rossi.

Article

Tessa Sidey

(b Stevenage, Jan 16, 1872; d Vence, France, July 29, 1966).

English theatre director, designer, theorist, printmaker and typographer. He was one of the great, if controversial, innovators of the modern theatre movement. The son of the actress Ellen Terry and the architect Edward William Godwin, Craig was born into a strong theatrical tradition. He abandoned a promising career as an actor with Henry Irving’s Lyceum Company in 1897 to concentrate on directing and developing ideas about ‘the theatre of the future’. Inspired by Hubert von Herkomer’s scenic experiments with auditorium lighting and three-dimensional scenery in productions at the Bushey Art School, Herts, Craig exchanged the conventions of realistic scenery for a suggestive, abstract interplay of form, light, movement and music. This new total theatre drew on the imagination to create an architectonic vision of choreographic movement, colour harmony, visual simplicity and atmospheric effect united under the sole control of a single artist. Influenced by his relationship with the dancer Isadora Duncan, he also proposed a concept of the rhythms and movements in nature acting as the vehicle for an emotional and aesthetic experience....

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

Silvia Lucchesi

(b Turin, Dec 16, 1808; d Giaveno, nr Susa, Piedmont, Sept 14, 1889).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and stage designer. He studied at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin under the painters Giovan Batista Biscarra (1790–1851) and Luigi Vacca (1778–1854), whose daughter he married. He was one of the first Italian artists to specialize in lithography and wood-engraving, and he became famous as the major illustrator of I promessi sposi and the Storia della colonna infame by Alessandro Manzoni (published together, Milan, 1840). He also illustrated a selection of the poetry of Carlo Porta and Tommaso Grossi written in Milanese dialect, Poesie scelte in dialetto milanese di C. Porta e T. Grossi (Milan, 1842), and in these illustrations he revealed a taste for the humble and the picturesque. He was a versatile artist and, after collaborating with Vacca in the 1830s, received royal commissions for frescoes: with Carlo Bellosio (1801–49) he decorated the ballroom of the Palazzo Reale in Turin and the Sala delle Verne in the Castello di Racconigi (both ...

Article

Wiepke F. Loos

(b Amsterdam, April 2, 1837; d Amsterdam, May 14, 1891).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He initially wanted to be a musician like his father, but he decided to become a painter and studied with his uncle, the genre and figure painter P. F. Greive (1811–72). Thereafter he was taught by Cornelis Springer, and around 1861 he worked with L. Lingeman (1829–94) in the latter’s studio.

Greive painted river and harbour scenes and townscapes, mainly in Amsterdam, but also in Gelderland and Zeeland, for example the Shellproof Barracks in Flushing (Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.). In 1860 he made a series of 12 lithographs showing types of ships, Studies of Dutch Ships Drawn After the Original. After the death of his father, Greive was for a time obliged to take on much illustration work for magazines at home and abroad to support his family, and he briefly abandoned painting. He remained, however, active within the Amsterdam artistic world and for three years was chairman of the society Arti et Amicitiae....

Article

(b Epineuil, nr Tonnerre, Yonne, Jan 1827; d Saint-Mandé, Seine, May 5, 1892).

French printmaker and costume designer. After leaving school he became an apprentice draughtsman for the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée railway company. While thus employed he also made his début as a caricaturist in the journal Gaulois, to which he contributed from 1858. In 1859 he had the first of many works published in the Journal amusant; his At the Opéra Ball (1860; Paris, Bib. N.) was for this publication. In 1860 he left the railway company and started to contribute to the Petit journal pour rire as well. He began working for Le Charivari in 1869, the year in which he co-founded, with Adrien Huart, the Almanach des Parisiennes, which published albums of prints for the next 19 years. It was about this time, when he began to concentrate on the manners and language of Parisian society, that Grévin established his mature style. Many of his designs, which were always accompanied by humorous captions, were inspired by the women of the demi-monde. Unlike many caricaturists of his age he avoided political topics....

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

P. Knolle

(b Leeuwarden, Sept 24, 1770; d Amsterdam, Oct 6, 1836).

Dutch painter, illustrator, printmaker and actor. He received his training from his father, Rienk Jelgerhuis (1729–1806), and from the landscape painter Pieter (Pietersz.) Barbiers II. While travelling with his father through the Dutch Republic he produced illustrations for almanacs, political cartoons and engravings of current events. In 1806 he settled in Amsterdam.

Jelgerhuis was famous primarily as an actor; his manual for actors, Theoretische lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek, was published in 1827 by Pieter Meijer Warnars, whose bookshop Jelgerhuis had depicted in an attractive painting in 1820, The Bookshop of Pieter Meijer Warnars on the Vijgendam, Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). With his drawings and paintings of towns (e.g. A Street in Amersfoort, 1826; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), landscapes and church interiors and his portraits he achieved a distinctive place for himself among Dutch artists. His scenes are remarkable for their lively rendering of human activity, unusual in topographical drawings of the period, although the figures in his subtle, brightly lit paintings often seem somewhat clumsy....

Article

Vivian Endicott Barnett

[Vassily; Wassily] (Vasil’yevich)

(b Moscow, Dec 4, 1866; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Dec 13, 1944).

Russian painter, printmaker, stage designer, decorative artist and theorist. A central figure in the development of 20th-century art and specifically in the transition from representational to abstract art, Kandinsky worked in a wide variety of media and was an important teacher and theoretician. He worked mainly outside Russia, but his Russian heritage continued to be an important factor in his development.

Kandinsky grew up in Odessa and from 1886 to 1893 studied economics, ethnography and law in Moscow, where he wrote a dissertation on the legality of labourers’ wages. He married his cousin Anya Shemyakina in 1892 (divorced 1911). In 1896 Kandinsky decided to become an artist and went to Munich. There he studied from 1896 to 1898 at the art school of Anton Ažbe, where he met Alexei Jawlensky and Marianne von Werefkin, and then in 1900 at the Akademie with Franz von Stuck. The following year he was a co-founder of the ...

Article

Russian, 19th–20th century, male.

Active from 1921 in Germany (naturalised 1928), active from 1934 in France (naturalised 1939).

Born 4 December 1866, in Moscow; died 13 December 1944, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, printmaker (wood engraving, etching, drypoint), art theorist, illustrator. Stage costumes and sets...

Article

(b Hamburg, Sept 14, 1876; d Pansdorf, nr Lübeck, May 13, 1954).

German painter, printmaker, poster and stage designer. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (c. 1894), and art academies in Düsseldorf and Berlin (c. 1897). In the first decades of the 20th century he exhibited with the New Secessionists. He drew and painted still-lifes and figures in landscapes and interiors in a strongly Expressionist style, which revealed his admiration for Cubism and for the work of Ferdinand Hodler. He was an assiduous worker; besides paintings, woodcuts and lithographs, he designed stained-glass windows, mosaics (e.g. Kaiser Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, Berlin), murals and painted ceilings. He also decorated the interiors of a number of Berlin theatres, as well as the Marmorhaus cinema (1913). Klein and Gerhard Marcks joined Gropius to organize the 1914 Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Cologne.

In the post-World War I ferment of cultural and political activity, Klein, with Max Pechstein and others, founded the Novembergruppe in Berlin in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in China and Japan.

Born 1879, in Tipton (Iowa); died 1954.

Print artist (woodblock prints), watercolourist, draughtswoman, illustrator, designer. Portraits, figures, mythological figures, scenes with figures. Stage costumes and sets.

Japonisme.

Bertha Lum studied with Frank Holme at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Harley Preston

(b Paris, Nov 23, 1821; d Charenton, Feb 14, 1868).

French printmaker. He was the illegitimate son of Lady Hester Stanhope’s companion and chronicler, Dr Charles Lewis Meryon, and Narcisse Chaspoux, a dancer at the Paris Opéra. He was acknowledged in 1824, but initial separation from his father and the stigma of illegitimacy oppressed him throughout his life. After private schooling at Passy, he entered the French Naval Academy at Brest in 1837 and travelled with his parents in western Europe and on voyages to North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. A precocious draughtsman, Meryon took some drawing lessons on his return to Toulon in 1840 from Vincent Courdouan (1810–93), from whom he learnt to value the elegant precision of line he was later to develop to a supreme degree. He served as midshipman on the corvette Le Rhin during its mission to the French possessions in Oceania (1842–6). Meryon drew small but lively sketches of shipboard life, minor ethnographic studies and more laboured topographical views. Signs of incipient mental instability occurred as he resigned from the navy in ...

Article

Judith Wechsler

(Bonaventure)

(b Paris, June 7, 1799; d Paris, June 3, 1877).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, writer and actor. He is best known for his satire of the mid-19th-century Parisian bourgeoisie, epitomized in the character of Joseph Prudhomme. Monnier worked as a supernumerary and then as a copy clerk in the bookkeeping department of the Département de la Justice. (He would later satirize office life in his work.) In 1817 he enrolled briefly in the studio of Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, he then moved to the studio of Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, where he remained for two years before he was expelled. Known as a prankster, he impersonated various character types in improvised scenes. These and subsequent performances as a mimic and monologist in studios and salons became the basis of his first published work, Scènes populaires dessinées à la plume (1830), which he both wrote and illustrated and which was reprinted 12 times in various editions during his life. The same themes extended throughout Monnier’s activities as a caricaturist, writer and actor....

Article

Czech, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 24 August 1860, in Ivancice; died 14 July 1939, in Prague.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman, illustrator, lithographer, poster artist. Historical subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, costume studies. Murals, stage costumes and sets, coats of arms, designs (jewels/postage stamps/banknotes/furniture)...

Article

Néstor  

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 February 1887, in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria; died 6 February 1938, in Las Palmas.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, scenographer. Figure compositions, scenes with figures, figures, nudes, portraits, animals. Murals, stage sets, stage costumes, theatre decoration.

Symbolism.

From a very early age Néstor showed signs of being gifted in drawing and painting and in this he was encouraged by his mother. From ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(Benjamin Jean Pierre)

(b Paris, May 11, 1864; d Paris, Aug 24, 1951).

French printmaker, illustrator and shadow-theatre designer. Born in Montmartre, Rivière lived and worked in that area of Paris throughout his long and active career. He trained briefly with a local academic artist, Emile Bin (b 1825). The first of many visits to Brittany, in 1880, profoundly influenced the future subject-matter of his art. By 1883 Rivière was a full participant in the activities of the artistic and literary Chat Noir cabaret and served as a sub-editor and illustrator of the Chat Noir journal. During this period Paris and Brittany became the two primary subjects of his art and remained so for the rest of his career. His urban and rural themes during the late 1880s and 1890s were inspired by the shadow theatre and by Japanese woodblock prints.

In 1886 Henry Somm and Rivière began to experiment with shadow-theatre performances at the Chat Noir. Rivière was responsible for the sophisticated technical development of this theatrical forerunner of cinema. Subtle nuances of colour were back-projected on to a screen across which cut-out zinc figures and landscapes were silhouetted and moved. This visual effect was combined with verse and music in the production of forty-four shadow-theatre programmes by a variety of artists over a ten-year period. Two of the most popular shows were Rivière’s ...

Article

Russian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1920 in the USA and from 1923 in India.

Born 27 September 1874, in St Petersburg, Russia; died 1947, in Naggar, India.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver (wood), illustrator. Historical subjects, religious subjects, military subjects, figures, landscapes, village views, architectural views, boats...