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Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Giuliana Ricci and Amedeo Bellini

(b Rome, Oct 30, 1836; d Milan, June 28, 1914).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. Boito was an important figure in many ways in the cultural life of Italy, and especially Milan, in the second half of the 19th century. He not only taught at the Accademia di Brera and the Istituto Tecnico Superiore for nearly 50 years but also took part in competitions (both as competitor and adjudicator), wrote articles on architecture and restoration for newspapers and periodicals, as well as numerous reports for private individuals and the government, and was active in numerous professional associations. He also served on numerous commissions, particularly after his appointment as Director of the Accademia di Brera in 1897.

Giuliana Ricci

Boito entered the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice in 1850 and won a prize there in 1852. In 1854 he entered the Studio Matematico at the Università degli Studi in Padua, and in 1855 he qualified as a professional architect. In ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Amiens, Sept 12, 1835; d Paris, Feb 2, 1904).

French architect and writer. He was a pupil of Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc and began his career by building the Hôtel de Ville (1862–5) at Roanne, the church (c. 1865) at Vougy in the Loire and the château of Fleyriat (1868–9) in the Ain. Subsequently he built the churches of Villers and Saint-Cyr-lès-Vignes (Loire) and, more importantly, the Comptoir d’Escompte (1878–82) in the Rue de Rougemont, Paris. During the same period Corroyer also studied medieval architecture and was commissioned to restore the churches at Lamballe, Saint-Pol-de-Léon and Dol. He undertook commissions at Dinan (1872) and Pleyben (1873) and restored churches at Ham, Nesle and Athies (Somme) and the château of Chamarande (Loire), which belonged to the Vicomte de Vougy. In 1878 he began the restoration of Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey but was dismissed in 1888 after a local intrigue. Corroyer also worked for the Service des Edifices Diocésains as diocesan architect to Soissons (from ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Siena, c. 1820; d Florence, 1867).

Italian restorer. He worked in Florence from 1845. He is known for his manual, published in 1866, in which he frequently disagreed with Conte Giovanni Secco-Suardo. Although it lacks the clear presentation of the latter’s work, Forni’s handbook is nevertheless one of the most valuable manuals of 19th-century restoration. Apart from an over-extensive list of recipes and an inexact approach to bibliography and information, it reflects a more modern working context than Secco-Suardo’s work and devotes much space to the restoration of medieval paintings, as well as dealing with different methods of rescuing, restoring and transferring wall paintings, probably based on advice provided by Gaetano Bianchi. Forni is known to have worked on Cosimo Rosselli’s Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi) and Pontormo’s Venus based on a cartoon by Michelangelo (Florence, Accad.).

Manuale del pittore restauratore (Florence, 1866) G. Incerpi: ‘Conservazione e restauro dei quadri degli Uffizi nel periodo lorenese’, ...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...

Article

Belgian, 19th century, male.

Born 8 March 1821, in Liège; died 15 February 1906, in Liège.

Painter, engraver, art restorer, art critic. Religious subjects, historical subjects. Church decoration.

He was a pupil at the academies in Liège and in Düsseldorf. He worked on the decoration and restoration of numerous paintings in churches in Liège and along the Meuse. He was the director of ...

Article

James Bettley

(b Hampstead, London, Dec 21, 1835; d Wimbledon, London, Nov 7, 1924).

English architect and writer. Jackson, the son of a solicitor, was educated at Brighton College and Wadham College, Oxford, of which he became a Fellow in 1865. He served his articles (1858–61) in the office of George Gilbert Scott the elder and then set up practice in London in 1861. His early work—including St Peter’s Church (1872–4), Hornblotton, Somerset —attracted little attention, although his book Modern Gothic Architecture (1873) was widely praised: in it Jackson advocated the use of an eclectic English Renaissance style, which he himself used with few exceptions throughout his career.

In 1876 he made his name by winning the competition for the new Examination Schools, Oxford, and went on to work for no fewer than 11 colleges there. He also carried out restoration or other work on practically every university building and designed the new High Schools for Boys and Girls (...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Marianne Frodl-Schneemann

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt am Main, Sept 15, 1780; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1856).

Austrian painter, teacher and Curator of German birth. From the age of ten, Krafft studied at the Hanau Akademie while at the same time continuing his school education in Hanau. In 1799 he went to Vienna with his sister and studied at the Akademie for three years with the history and portrait painter Heinrich Füger. At this time Krafft painted mythological subjects, made copies from older works and produced several self-portraits that already reveal his capacities in this genre, for example Self-portrait (1799; priv. col., see Frodl-Schneemann, pl. I). The dream-like atmosphere of total absorption, which Krafft often achieved through his use of the techniques of early German painting, constitutes one of the most striking aspects of his portraits from the turn of the century. From 1802 to 1804 he was in Paris, where he studied with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard. The work of these two, together with that of Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Antoine-Jean Gros, was to influence Krafft’s later work when he returned to Vienna. David’s realist tendencies in painting had a fundamental effect on Krafft’s artistic output, and it was through Krafft that this realism contributed to a development towards Biedermeier art in Vienna. In ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Littry (Calvados), April 8, 1813; d Sens, Dec 24, 1874).

French architect and writer. He studied with Guillaume Abel Blouet and Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti, and worked for the latter for several years as a draughtsman. Early in his career he won first prize in an open competition for a public abattoir. In Paris he was appointed inspector of works at the Palais de Justice (1849), at the workshop of Saint-Denis Abbey (1850), which was then under the supervision of Viollet-le-Duc, and at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers (1854) under Léon Vaudoyer. On the recommendation of Jean-Baptiste Lassus, he was appointed diocesan architect at Sens in 1854 and restored the cathedral’s transepts and the sacristy of the lower choir; he also designed the pulpit (1871), restored the Francis I wing of the Archbishop’s Palace and built the seminary. He replaced Emile Boeswillwald as diocesan architect at Soissons in 1857. He was appointed a member of the commission for lycées and training colleges in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 8 June 1822, in Oxford; died 10 July 1877, in London.

Painter, art restorer, writer.

Henry Merrit was married to Anna Lea Merritt.

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Affori, 1799; d Milan, Jan 11, 1867).

Italian painter, restorer and museum director. The son of an impoverished innkeeper, from the age of 10 he was supported by a Milanese family called Brocca, who financed his education at the painting school in the Brera, Milan. There he studied with Giuseppe Longhi to become a painter of sentimental genre-pieces and fashionable portraits. After graduating he was employed as a restorer by the Abbate Massinelli, a priest from Bergamo, who had acquired a collection of pictures (later bought by Edward Solly) from churches and religious institutions in Lombardy. Molteni then studied at Bologna with Giuseppe Guizzardi (1779–1861), a well-known restorer, and returned to Milan in the 1820s. Elected a member of the Accademia di Brera in 1839, he became Consigliero Ordinario in 1851 and was given a studio there. This was frequented by such museum directors as Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (i), such dealers as Otto Mündler and such private collectors as Sir ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, Feb 18, 1820; d Cannes, May 8, 1887).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux. He was subsequently appointed junior lecturer and in due course the first professor of the history of the decorative arts at the Ecole Royale de Dessin (later the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs), where he remained for the whole of his teaching career. In 1844 he asked to be appointed Inspecteur des Travaux at Notre-Dame, Paris, a post for which he was recommended by the Broglie family. In 1848 he was appointed Diocesan Architect to Bayeux Cathedral and to diocesan buildings in Coutances, and shortly afterwards he became Auditeur to the Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux. His later diocesan posts were at Séez (1854), Nevers (1857), Albi (1877–9) and Reims (1879). In 1883 Ruprich-Robert was unable to visit his construction sites due to ill-health and the following year he requested the appointment of deputies at Reims and Nevers, although he refused to relinquish his artistic control of the construction works....

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Bergamo, 1798; d Bergamo, 1873).

Italian writer and restorer. He wrote the most important 19th-century handbook on the restoration of paintings. Heir to the 18th-century tradition of studying the physical and chemical aspects of art, Secco-Suardo was able to explain problems with a clarity that makes his work still irreplaceable. The manual was probably compiled after 1858, when he gave up his administrative duties for the Austrian government. The first part of the text appeared in 1866 but the entire work was published only posthumously in 1894, and the world it mirrors is that of the restorers who worked for the great collectors of the first half of the 19th century. According to Secco-Suardo, the primary concern of restoration should be the visual pleasure of a painting rather than strict conservation, and the restorer must endeavour to conceal the distinction between the old work and the new. Any additions should imitate the original and repainting should be removed only if of poor quality, though in certain circumstances a colour that has become badly altered may be repainted. When it comes to the appearance of paintings, Secco-Suardo shows a typically Romantic taste for patina as a means of showing age. His link with the methods practised in the first half of the 19th century can also be seen in his recommendations for the transfer of frescoes: he merely advises on their removal, with no regard for their character as painted plaster and with none of the consideration that Gaetano Bianchi had shown for them as part of a building’s polychrome decoration....

Article

David Cast

(b London, 1771; d Brighton, Nov 5, 1843).

English connoisseur, museum curator and picture restorer. He was born into a Huguenot family long settled in London that claimed connection with the French noble family of the name of Seguier. He first trained as a painter under Philippe-Joseph Tassaert (1732–1803), and also possibly under George Morland, a family friend, and worked as a professional artist specializing in topographical views of London and making copies of Old Masters. Following his marriage to the wealthy Ann Clowden, he gave up painting and turned his attention to connoisseurship, providing help to collectors of pictures. His clients included G. Watson Taylor, Sir Charles Long (later 1st Baron Farnborough), Sir Robert Peel and, most importantly, George IV, whom he advised on collecting Dutch and Flemish pictures (London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). He was also appointed Conservator of the Royal Picture Galleries by George IV, a position he retained under William IV and Queen Victoria. For many years Seguier was Superintendent of the British Institution, London, holding summer exhibitions of Old Masters and winter exhibitions of contemporary painters. With his brother ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...

Article

Françoise Bercé

(b Paris, Jan 27, 1814; d Lausanne, Sept 17, 1879).

French architect, restorer, designer and writer. He is one of the few architects whose name is known to the general public in France, although his fame as a restorer of medieval buildings is often accompanied by a somewhat unflattering critical judgement: a restoration ‘à la Viollet-le-Duc’ is usually understood to be abusive in terms of the original work and is often confused with the type of eclectic architecture that he himself particularly disliked. Through his published writings, particularly his Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (1854–68), he made a substantial contribution to contemporary knowledge of medieval buildings. In addition, his writings and theories had an enormous impact on attitudes to restoration ( see Architectural conservation and restoration ) and on contemporary design, not only for the Gothic Revival movement but also in the development of rationalism, providing an important stimulus to new movements in architecture both in France and abroad (...