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Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Wiesbaden, 1908; d. Heidelberg, 4 April, 1999).

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of 1935 Otto-Dorn went to Turkey, working with the German Archaeological Institute on the ceramics of Iznik and excavating at Kahta in southeast Anatolia. World War II forced her to return to Europe, and in 1948 she began teaching at Heidelberg University, while also excavating at Rusafa in northeastern Syria and then at Kubadabad on Lake Beyşehir. In 1954 she returned to Turkey, where she established the chair of Islamic art and archaeology at Ankara and trained many Turkish students. In 1964 she returned to Heidelberg, but unable to find a position in Germany, she took up the position of professor of Islamic Art at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught from ...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Venice, Aug 23, 1683; d Padua, Nov 15, 1761).

Italian scientist and archaeologist. He is noted for his work as a technical consultant specializing in architectural and hydraulic problems. He began his studies in 1690 in Venice, at the Seminario Patriarcale, Murano, completing them c. 1705 at the school of the Somaschi Fathers at Santa Maria della Salute. In 1708 he was appointed a professor of astronomy at the University of Padua. On 30 November 1710 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London; this was followed by membership of the most famous Italian academies, as well as those of Berlin (1715), St Petersburg (1735) and Paris (1739). He maintained a continuous correspondence with the most eminent scientists and men of culture, both Italian and foreign, and published numerous works on scientific subjects. In the course of Poleni’s career at the University of Padua, he was professor of philosophy (c. 1715–19...

Article

María Teresa Dabrio González

(b Pontevedra, 1937).

Spanish architect, restorer, theorist and teacher. He studied architecture at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura, Barcelona, where he graduated in 1966 and earned his doctorate two years later. He subsequently developed a career in private practice and also taught architectural design and urban planning at the Escuela de Arquitectura, La Coruña. His interest in the restoration and preservation of the urban environment, especially in Galicia, is reflected in numerous projects in the area, for example the refurbishing of the Casa del Concejo (1982), Brión. Other singular projects that characterize his close identification with this region are competition entries such as his ‘Study of the Natural Elements and Artificial Objects that Make Up the Galician Physical Milieu’ (1983) sponsored by the Ministry of Public Works and City Planning of Madrid, and his design (1989) for a lighthouse in Malpica, Costa de la Muerte. He was also one of the architects invited to design the Spanish Pavilion for the Exposición Universal in Seville in ...

Article

Olgierd Czerner

(b Narva [now in Estonia], Sept 1, 1883; d Kraków, Oct 1, 1948).

Polish architect, designer, restorer, writer and teacher. He studied (1902–9) at the Academy of Fine Arts, St Petersburg, and subsequently studied the history of art in Kraków. His early buildings include a synagogue (1910), Kharkiv, a house (1912), at 7 Mariacki Square, Kraków, and cloisters for pilgrims at a convent in Jasna Góra, in Częstochowa, which reflect the requirement to use national forms of architecture. Above all, however, he was an advocate of a simplified, monumental, academic classicism, notably in the design for the Hotel Bristol (1912) and the house (1913) at 15 Zwierzyniecka Street, both in Kraków, and his design for a ministerial building (1921) in Warsaw. He applied classical ideas magnificently in the National Savings Bank Building (1925), Kraków, and in the building constructed to house its employees. Szyszko-Bohusz’s extensive simplification of classical designs, already evident in the design for the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy (...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Ploieşti, June 28, 1894; d Bucharest, June 21, 1976).

Romanian architect, urban planner, restorer and theorist. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, until 1925, then studied (1926–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome, where he specialized in the problems of restoration. On his return to Romania he worked with the Historical Monuments Commission and in 1931 was appointed a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts ‘Nicolae Grigorescu’, Bucharest. Among his most notable architectural achievements are the Dalles Foundation Building (1932; now altered and known as Sala Dalles), Bucharest, containing exhibition rooms and a concert hall; the replanning of I. C. Brătianu Square (1936; now Nicolae Bălcescu Square), Bucharest, in collaboration with the sculptor Ivan Mes̆trović; the design of the parish building and bell-tower (1939) in the Old Court, Bucharest, which are sympathetically constructed in brick, preserving and blending in with the original character of the site; and the planning of Constanţa, intended to improve the situation of the ancient city of Tomis. As a restorer Teodoru distinguished himself not only by introducing modern techniques but also by his synthesis of the different contributions of the architect, the urban planner, the archaeologist and the art historian, for example in the original restoration of the Old Court (...

Article

Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b Carmarthen, Dec 27, 1882; d Newton Abbot, Devon, Jan 11, 1952).

English art historian, writer, and conservator. He trained under Professor W. R. Lethaby at the Royal College of Art, London, and rose to become Professor of Design there from 1925 until his retirement in 1946, when he was made Professor Emeritus. He was an acknowledged expert on medieval wall paintings, particularly their preservation, although his technical methods are now known to have been unsound. He was also a highly influential teacher on the subject and did much to bring the interest and value of medieval painting to public attention. He worked on the preservation and restoration of wall paintings at Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster, and Eton College (Berks), among other sites, and in the cathedrals of Norwich, Exeter, Winchester, and Christchurch, Oxford, as well as on the Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Oxford Union Library. He gave a large collection of his drawings of medieval wall paintings to the ...

Article

(b Feldhausen, Dec 31, 1893; d Cologne, May 25, 1978).

German art historian and conservator . He wrote his dissertation in Bonn on Early Renaissance art on the Lower Rhine, and from 1928 to 1951 he was in charge of conservation for the Rhineland. In 1933 he began teaching the care of monuments and Rhenish art at the Universität Bonn, where he was appointed honorary professor in 1939. During World War II Metternich was responsible for the protection of movable works of art in the Rhineland and in France, where he did extremely valuable work pursuant to the Hague Convention. After 1950 he worked for the West German Foreign Office to recover art works that had been taken abroad, and from 1952 to 1962 he was Director of the Bibliotheca Hertziana in Rome. Metternich’s scholarly work was dedicated to the art of the Rhineland. His special interests included Romanesque architecture and murals, such as Bonn Minster, Schwarzrheindorf, St Georg and St Aposteln in Cologne; Gothic churches such as Cologne Cathedral; Renaissance buildings (for example Schloss Rheydt) and such Baroque estates as Schloss Brühl. At the Bibliotheca Hertziana he devoted himself to architecture in Rome from the 15th to the 18th century and especially to problems concerning Bramante and the building of St Peter’s, Rome....