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(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...


German, 17th century, male.

Active in Ulm and in Stuttgart between 1630 and 1660.

Engraver (burin), print publisher.

Mathäus Rembold engraved portraits and architectural plates. His prints are usually signed Math. Remb.


Doris Kutschbach

[Ryff, Walther Hermann]

(b Strasbourg, c. 1500: d Nuremberg, after 1545).

German publisher. Probably a physician by profession, he had a fairly comprehensive knowledge of the writings on architectural theory of the Renaissance, as far as they were available in print, and sought to make them accessible to German artists and craftsmen. In 1547 he published five plates and a page of text on the subject of the five orders with pictorial material by Sebastiano Serlio and Cesare di Lorenzo Cesariano. His Unterrichtung zu rechtem Verstandt der lehr Vitruvii (Nuremberg, 1547; the so-called Architektur) did not constitute a complete architectural theory but contains excerpts and adaptations of mainly Italian texts in a German compilation; the theories of Serlio and Alberti, in particular, were disseminated in Germany by this work. After publishing a Latin edition (Strasbourg, 1543) of the work of Vitruvius, Rivius published the first German translation, the Vitruvius Teutsch (Nuremberg, 1548; Basle, 1575, 1614). He based this annotated edition on the Italian translation and commentary (Como, ...