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Article

John Ford

[Rudolf]

(b Stollberg, Saxony, April 20, 1764; d Finchley, London, March 30, 1834).

English publisher and patron of German birth. He trained as a carriage designer in Paris and moved to England between 1783 and 1786. He established his own business as a carriage maker, undertaking major commissions in London and Dublin. In 1804 he designed Pius VII’s carriage for the coronation of Napoleon and in 1805 the funeral carriage of Horatio, Viscount Nelson. By 1800 Ackermann had built up a unique business at 101 The Strand, London, known as ‘The Repository of Arts’. This encompassed a drawing school with 80 pupils, the sale and loan of Old Master paintings and watercolour drawings, the publication of decorative prints and illustrated books and the manufacture of watercolour paints including a number of new chemical pigments.

In the early 19th century, Ackermann was an important and regular patron of English watercolour painters, employing William Henry Pyne, Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas Heaphy, Frederick Mackenzie (1787–1854...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b Monceaux-sous-Paris, 1790; d 1849).

French dealer, print-publisher and collector, of English descent. His father, William Arrowsmith, was an agent for members of the Orléans family. Through his brother-in-law Louis Daguerre, John Arrowsmith was instrumental in negotiating the installation of the Diorama in Park Square East, Regent’s Park, London, opened in 1823 (see Diorama). In 1822, on one of his frequent visits to London, he saw Constable’s The Haywain (1821; London, N.G.) at the British Institution and shortly after began negotiations to buy it in order to exhibit it in Paris. He purchased it in 1824, along with View on the Stour near Dedham (San Marino, CA, Huntington Lib. & A.G.) and a smaller seascape, and in June 1824 exhibited them at his premises at 1, Rue Grange-aux-Belles, Paris. He sent the two larger landscapes to the Salon of 1824, as well as a view of Hampstead Heath. He was one of a small group of dealers attempting to specialize in the sale of works by living artists, and his contacts with England were particularly useful during the 1820s, when an enthusiasm for English literature and art was widespread among young French artists who were part of the Romantic movement. Between ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

[Bernheim]

French family of dealers and publishers. Joseph Bernheim (b Besançon; bapt 31 March 1790; d 1859) was a colourman and artists’ supplier in Besançon. His son Alexandre Bernheim-Jeune (b Besançon, 3 April 1839; d Paris, 2 March 1915) moved to Paris in 1863 and two years later set up a gallery there in the Rue Laffitte, apparently on the advice of Courbet, who was, like himself, a native of the Franche-Comté region. Bernheim-Jeune knew Delacroix and Corot and was at first particularly associated with the Barbizon school and with Théodule Ribot, exhibiting the latter’s work in 1887 and 1890. Part of the family’s business was established in Brussels as early as 1867 and the family presumably moved there—as did several other dealers—during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71). Alexandre’s two sons, Joseph (‘Josse’) Bernheim-Jeune [Bernheim d’Auberville] (b 2 Jan 1870; d Paris, 5 July 1941...

Article

Linda Whiteley

[Alphonse]

(b St Omer, Pas-de-Calais, April 5, 1828; d Paris, 1875).

French dealer and print publisher. He was the son of an innkeeper and joined the army in 1848. After spending several years in Lyon, he returned to St Omer and in 1859 married the sister of the printmaker and painter François Chifflart. In that year he gave up his modest position with a railway company and set up in Paris in the Rue de Richelieu as a print dealer and print publisher. His first publication appeared in May 1859 and was an album of Chifflart’s works illustrated with photographs, lithographs and etchings. He also launched two illustrated periodicals, Paris mystérieux (1861) and Paris qui s’en va (1859; only one issue published). In 1861 he went into partnership with the photographer Félix Chevalier, and in August of that year they held an exhibition of photographs of the principal pictures of the Salon, as well as an exhibition of paintings that included landscapes by ...

Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

Ingrid Severin

(b Görlitz, Feb 21, 1871; d Berlin, Jan 7, 1926).

German dealer, publisher and journalist. After studying art history at the University of Munich, where he was co-editor of Simplicissimus from 1896 to 1898, he established himself in 1898 as a publisher and dealer in Berlin, helping contemporary artists towards international recognition. In 1908 he founded Verlag Paul Cassirer, a firm that published belles-lettres, especially Expressionist literature, and that promoted such artists as Ernst Barlach. In 1910 he married Ottilie Godefroy, who wrote her memoirs many years later under her stage name of Tilla Durieux.

Cassirer founded the Pan-Presse in 1909, edited the bi-monthly Pan in 1910 and in 1913 founded the journal Die Weissen Blätter, containing comment on literature and art, which he published until 1921. Already President of the Berlin Secession, in 1913 he founded the Freie Sezession, whose exhibitions he planned. In the years preceding World War I Cassirer became a friend of Paul Durand-Ruel and promoted the work of the ...

Article

John Christian

(b Leicester, 1797; d Oxford, Oct 29, 1872).

English publisher and patron. He was one of the earliest patrons of the Pre-Raphaelites, and his bequest of their works to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, is notable among collections formed in the 19th century in that it remains largely intact. (Unless otherwise stated, all works mentioned are in the Ashmolean.) In 1838 Combe became Superintendent of the Clarendon Press at Oxford University, a post he held until his death. Under his management, the Press, hitherto run at a loss, became a source of revenue; Combe’s own substantial share in the profitable business of printing Bibles and prayer books enabled him to acquire a considerable personal fortune. He was a genial, hospitable man of strong religious convictions, a friend and ardent supporter of the Tractarians; John Henry Newman officiated at his marriage in 1840. Combe and his wife Martha (1806–93) were active in many forms of charitable work, and Combe, who edited ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...

Article

Júlia Papp

[Antal]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovak Republic], 1784; d Vienna, July 13, 1852)

Hungarian engraver, publisher and dealer. He studied under his father József Ehrenreich (1765–1842), a seal engraver, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibányi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788–1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, József Ürményi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, István Ferenczy, Ferdinánd Jakab Miller and Benedek Virág. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudományos Gyüjtemény...

Article

(Théodore)

(b Courtrai, Oct 12, 1814; d Nice, April 12, 1902).

British publisher and dealer. He began his career in his father’s printing, binding and bookselling business, with a reading-room, at Courtrai, Belgium. From c. 1833 he was established in Paris, with his own print and paper-making business. In April 1840 Gambart arrived in England, representing Goupil’s print publishing business. By autumn 1842 he had formed a partnership known as Gambart & Junin, which specialized in the import of prints from the Continent. After a brief period at 12 Denmark Street, London, the expanding business was set up at 25 Berners Street, in March 1844, as publishers, importers and exporters of prints. It was from this address that Gambart launched his career as one of the leading print publishers of the mid-Victorian period, with engravings after all the most celebrated British and continental artists of the time, including Edwin Landseer, John Everett Millais, Rosa Bonheur, Lawrence Alma-Tadema and William Holman Hunt. Probably his most famous publication (...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b Rouen, 1799; d after 1834).

French print publisher and dealer. He was the son of a prosperous Rouen magistrate and may have had family connections with the engraver Thomas Gaugain. Henri Gaugain went to Paris to study law, but in 1826 he entered into partnership with the firm of Lambert & Noël to run a lithographic business in the Rue de Vaugirard. At the same time he opened a shop at 2 Rue Vivienne. His first prints were commissioned from the Romantic generation of artists young in the 1820s—Gustave Boulanger, Ary Scheffer, Camille Roqueplan, Eugène Devéria and Eugène Delacroix (who remembered him with gratitude). They shared the current taste for English literature, and Gaugain published scenes from Walter Scott from 1827 onwards, and in the same year a volume entitled Souvenirs du théâtre anglais dessinés par MM. Devéria et Boulanger.

In 1829 Gaugain opened a picture gallery within the elegant arcade known as the Galerie Colbert, naming it the Musée Colbert. His exhibitions, for which he published catalogues, received much critical attention, particularly as there had been no official Salon since ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b March 7, 1806 or 1809; d May 1893).

French print publisher and dealer. He was a descendant on his mother’s side of the Drouais family of painters. At the age of 21 he set up as a printseller in association with John Arrowsmith, and in 1829 registered officially as a printseller in partnership with J. H. Rittner (1802–40), who had gone to Paris from Dresden with the intention of dealing in German prints. The critic Feuillet de Conches drew Goupil’s attention to Paul Delaroche, and prints after this artist’s work began to appear with some frequency. By 1840 the firm had made a name as publisher of copperplate engravings executed by the most famous engravers of the day, Luigi Calamatta and Louis-Pierre Henriquel-Dupont. Delaroche was the favourite of the firm. In 1841, following the death of Rittner, the firm was dissolved and re-established in partnership with Théodore Vibert, also a publisher of engravings. The firm published for an international market; Goupil opened a branch in London in ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(fl Paris, 1824; d 1834). French dealer and print-publisher. It has been suggested that she might be identified with a certain Madame Hulin who in January 1816 wrote to the British ambassador in Paris requesting permission for her husband to live in London (Pointon, p. 51). Her interest in the French school of young Romantic artists that developed partly under the influence of English art and literature, as well as the fact that she was co-publisher, with S. J. Fuller of London and several French colleagues, of La Petite Normandie, a set of ten lithographs by the English artist Richard Parkes Bonington, make it plausible that she had at least some connection with England. From 1824 to 1834 she managed a shop at 21 Rue de la Paix, Paris, and her stock catered to those buyers with a taste for the Antique and the Picturesque, exemplified by Baron Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s multi-volumed topographical architectural survey ...

Article

Laurie A. Stein

(b Cologne, Sept 9, 1860; d Darmstadt, Jan 5, 1939).

German publisher, patron and collector. He was influential in the reform movements in art, in particular Jugendstil, the German version of Art Nouveau. Through his publications he hoped to free art from the constraints of the studio, elevate public taste and encourage the creation of a style that would be in keeping with an ideal modern culture. Trained as a printer, he started a magazine of the carpet trade, Tapetenzeitung, in 1888 and shortly afterwards, with only DM 100 as capital, established Verlagsanstalt Alexander Koch. The highly successful firm published periodicals, including Fachblatt für Innen-Dekoration (first issue 1890; since 1980 Architektur, Innenarchitektur, technischer Ausbau) and Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration (first issue 1897); catalogues, notably Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig und die Ausstellung der Künstler-Kolonie in Darmstadt von Mai bis Oktober 1901; and books, among them Handbuch neuzeitlicher Wohnungskultur (1912). He also published the Meister der Innenkunst, the series of prizewinning designs by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, M. H. Baillie Scott and Leopold Bauer for the competition ‘Haus eines Kunstfreundes’ of ...

Article

Concha Vela

(b Beire, Navarra, March 30, 1862; d Madrid, Dec 1, 1947).

Spanish collector, publisher and patron. He studied law in Barcelona and c. 1882 settled in Madrid, where his enthusiasm for art and literature rapidly developed. In 1888 he founded a publishing enterprise, España Moderna, and a journal of the same name containing contributions by such leading writers and intellectuals as Juan Valera and Emilia Pardo Bazán. Lázaro Galdiano used the journal to publish the most significant writings on Spanish art and translations of such books as Carl Justi’s Diego Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert, 2 vols (Bonn, 1888, rev. 1903). His publishing house also issued the Revista Internacional and several collections dealing with cultural and juridical matters. Over a period of 60 years he assembled one of the finest collections of art in Spain and in Europe, notable for its size and the quality and rarity of the works. Many pieces were acquired through his extensive travels, when he was accompanied by his wife, the wealthy Argentine Paula Florido. His collection included important illuminated manuscripts and engravings, as well as numerous examples of enamel work, from 10th-century Byzantine pieces to 16th-century Limoges enamel. He collected ivory, gold and silver objects of various periods and styles: Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. There were also many examples of fans, fabrics, pieces of lace, medals, armour and furniture in his collection. Among his paintings were examples of 15th- and 16th-century Flemish and Spanish work (e.g. ...

Article

Christina Lodder

(Vasil’yevich)

(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Basle, April 4, 1737; d Berlin, Nov 4, 1817).

Swiss engraver, publisher and dealer, active in France and Germany. Although he was apprenticed in 1753 to the engraver Georg Daniel Heumann (1691–1759) in Nuremberg, his friendship with the brothers Johann Justin Preissler (1698–1771) and Georg Martin Preissler (1700–1754) was of greater importance. He continued his education (1755–7) with Johann Georg Pintz (1697–1767) in Augsburg, then went to Paris in 1757, to the academy of Jean-Georges Wille, who not only nurtured his taste for realistic representation of a landscape but also transformed him into a courtier and shrewd businessman. From 1760 to 1764 Mechel ran his own engraving studio in Paris, printing and distributing his own work and that of such engravers as L. de Montigny, Elie Mesnil (b 1728), Joseph Jean Halle (1740–1805), Jean-Baptiste de Lorraine (b 1731) and Antoine Louis Romanet (...

Article

Moyon  

Linda Whiteley

(fl Paris, 1825–38). French dealer and print-publisher. From 1825 to 1838 he conducted business at his premises at 5, Rue de l’Université, Paris. The first artist with whom he was particularly associated was Jean-Augustin Franquelin (1798–1839), who was also admired by the art historian and collector Alexandre du Sommerard. In 1827 Moyon sent two genre subjects by Franquelin to the Salon and in 1831 he sent four, one of which (untraced) was a scene from Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais’s play Le Mariage de Figaro depicting Comtesse Almaviva drying Chérubin’s tears. Such other dealers as François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux, Amédée Susse, Jean Marie Fortuné Durand-Ruel, Louis-Auguste Asse and P. Souty followed suit in buying these pleasant and undemanding works and in the 1830s regularly submitted Franquelin’s paintings to the Salons. Moyon, however, continued to send the largest number of Franquelin’s works, some of which reappeared in his closing sale; this suggests, in view of their evident popularity, that he had not intended them for sale but rather for hire, probably for the purposes of copying. Several landscapes, which were also a specialization of his gallery, were certainly intended for this purpose. He owned almost the entire oeuvre of ...

Article

(b Worbis, Saxony, April 23, 1819; d London, Dec 17, 1899).

British bookseller and publisher of German birth. He was apprenticed to a bookseller in Nordhausen from 1834 to 1839 and afterwards spent three years working for a publishing house in Berlin. Quaritch came to England in 1842 and five years later became a naturalized British subject. In 1847 he established his own second-hand bookshop near Leicester Square, London, and in 1860 moved to premises on Piccadilly. His shop became a centre of interest for all the great bibliophiles around the world. He became known for his ability to find rare books, manuscripts, historic bindings and incunabula, and for the excellence of the catalogues that he issued at regular intervals throughout his career. From 1862 he employed Michael Kerney (1838–1901) as his chief cataloguer and literary adviser. The catalogues were comprehensive, with extensive indexes, notes and scholarly descriptions. One of the most valuable was the Bibliotheca Xylographica, Typographica et Palaeographica: Catalogue of Block Books and of Early Productions of the Printing Press in all Countries, and a Supplement of Manuscripts...