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Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 28 April 1845, in Rouen; died September 1909, in Rouen.

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, architect, art writer.

Jules Adeline was a first-time exhibitor at the Paris Salon in 1873, when, as a young architect, he initially contributed sketches and architectural projects. From ...

Article

(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

Gianni Mezzanotte

(b Monza, Aug 22, 1776; d Milan, May 23, 1852).

Italian architect and writer. He studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, under Giuseppe Zanoia (1752–1817), the Accademia’s secretary, and later taught there himself. At the beginning of his career he was involved in the hurried completion (1806–13) of the façade of Milan Cathedral, which was carried out under the direction and with the collaboration of Zanoia. Napoleon’s order that the façade should be completed economically determined the execution of the work, which was carried out in a simple Gothic style derived from the cathedral’s aisles, and it was later judged to be deficient on a number of counts, including its workmanship. The church of S Carlo al Corso (1838–47) in Milan was Amati’s most significant building. Here he grafted 16th-century motifs on to a centralized Roman plan in such a way as to recall both the Pantheon in Rome and the circular Milanese church of S Sebastiano, as well as Bramantesque models and the buildings frequently seen in the backgrounds of Renaissance paintings. The design for the church was part of a proposal (largely unexecuted) to reorder the entire centre of the city. Amati proposed that a vast arcaded square be opened up around the cathedral and that the Corsia dei Servi (now Corso Vittorio Emanuele) should be straightened to lead up to S Carlo, where another piazza, relating architecturally to the church, was proposed. At the time when eclecticism was spreading in Italy and overturning accepted criteria of artistic quality, Amati advocated a return to Vitruvian principles. To this end he produced a series of publications devoted to Vignola, Vitruvius, Roman antiquities in Milan, and on archaeology. The completion of the church of S Carlo and Amati’s death, however, marked the end of the Neo-classical movement in Italy....

Article

Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Valencia, 1832; d Madrid, 1917).

Spanish architect, teacher and writer. He studied at the recently established Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid and received his degree in 1855. He was noted for the historical knowledge that he was able to apply to the theories of eclecticism in the pursuit of pure historicism. He was more a theoretician than a practising architect, devoting 50 years to teaching at the Escuela de Arquitectura as Catedrático de Construcción. He was director of the Escuela between 1896 and 1910 and bequeathed his library to it.

Aparici y Soriano’s early architectural works, such as the monument to Mendizábal, Argüelles and Calatrava (1857) in the cemetery of S Nicolás, Madrid, shows his scholarly interests. Immediately after, however, his style came under the influence of Viollet-le-Duc, of whom he became a fervent follower, as is apparent in his few completed projects. The most important of these was the sober and monumental basilica of Nuestra Señora de Covadonga (...

Article

Volker Helas

(b Drebach, Feb 12, 1823; d Dresden, March 16, 1890).

German architect, teacher and writer. He attended the Gewerbeschule in Chemnitz and studied architecture (1841–50) at the Dresden Kunstakademie under Gustav Heine (1802–80) and Gottfried Semper. In 1849 he was awarded a travel scholarship and visited southern Germany, Italy, France and Belgium. From 1853 he worked as a lecturer in architectural science at the Dresden Kunstakademie, where he was later professor (1861–85). His buildings include the church (1859–64) at Lengefeld, near Plauen-Vogtland, an aisleless Romanesque Revival building with a gallery and flat ceiling; Schloss Eckberg (1859–61) at Loschwitz, near Dresden, built in the Tudor Revival style; the Villa Löschke (1860) in Tolkewitzer Strasse, Dresden, which resembles a manor house in the German Renaissance style; a Romanesque Revival church (1861–3) at Staucha, near Riesa; the Kreuzschule (1864–6), Dresden, in a strict High Gothic style; and the rebuilding of the Sophienkirche (...

Article

Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...

Article

Leland M. Roth

(b Detroit, MI, July 7, 1869; d Southampton, NY, Oct 18, 1956).

American architect, urban planner and writer. Atterbury studied at Yale University, New Haven, CT, and travelled in Europe. He studied architecture at Columbia University, New York and worked in the office of McKim, Mead & White before completing his architecture studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Atterbury’s early work consisted of suburban and weekend houses for wealthy industrialists, such as the Henry W. de Forest House (1898) in Cold Springs Harbor on Long Island, NY. De Forest was a leader in the philanthropic movement to improve workers’ housing, an interest that Atterbury shared; through him Atterbury was given the commission for the model housing community of Forest Hills Gardens, NY, begun in 1909 under the sponsorship of the Russell Sage Foundation; the co-planners and landscape designers were the brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852–1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr (1870–1957), the sons of Frederick Law Olmsted. Atterbury developed a system of precast concrete panels to build a varied group of multiple units and town houses suggesting an English country hamlet. He continued his research into prefabrication largely at his own expense throughout his life....

Article

(b Elgin, 1838; d New York, 1925).

Scottish architect, designer and writer. Trained as an architect, he moved to Liverpool, Lancs, in 1856 and set up an architectural practice with his brother William James Audsley (b 1833) in 1863. With him he wrote Handbook of Christian Symbolism (1865), and together they designed a number of buildings in and around Liverpool, among them the Welsh Presbyterian Church, Prince’s Road, Toxteth (1865–7), Christ Church, Kensington (1870), and the church of St Margaret, Belmont Road, Anfield (1873). For the merchant William Preston they designed the church of St Mary (1873) in the grounds of his house, Ellel Grange, Lancs. Other commissions were for a synagogue and a tennis club. He was among the earliest publishers to exploit the graphic potential of chromolithography, and, contrary to other major books on ornament, he made a case for classifying designs by their basic motif rather than by nationality. He was an expert on Japanese art, lecturing on the subject and between ...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b Wädenswil, April 16, 1847; d Konstanz, Aug 30, 1906).

Swiss architect, teacher and writer. In Zurich he was trained (1863–4) by a master carpenter called Brunner and he then studied (1865–8) under Gottfried Semper at the Polytechnikum. He moved to Vienna to study (1869–70) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Theophilus Hansen. From 1870 to 1884 he was Hansen’s pupil and later chief collaborator. He was a professor at the Staatsgewerbeschule, Vienna (1884–8), and at Berne University (from 1890), from which time he was a member of almost every competition jury in Switzerland. In Vienna, Auer made major contributions to Hansen’s buildings, including the Börse (1871–7) and the Reichsrat (1873–88). In his architecture as well as in his teaching he was centrally concerned with the Renaissance, two examples in this style being Dr Eder’s Sanatorium (1886–7), Vienna, which has a domed vestibule, and the post office (...

Article

(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...

Article

James D. Kornwolf

(b Ramsgate, Oct 23, 1865; d Brighton, Feb 10, 1945).

English architect, interior designer, garden designer and writer . He was articled to Charles Davis (1827–1902), City Architect of Bath, from 1886 until 1889 but learnt little and was largely self-taught. In 1889 he started his own practice on the Isle of Man, where he built a number of buildings, including his own Red House, Douglas (1893). He was a leading member of the second-generation Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and was among the first to build on the simpler, more abstract and stylized designs of C. F. A. Voysey, a refinement of the ideas of William Morris, Philip Webb, R. Norman Shaw and others from the period 1860–90. From about 1890 until World War I, the Arts and Crafts Movement, as represented by Baillie Scott, Voysey, C. R. Ashbee, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Parker & Unwin and others, became the most important international force in architecture, interior design, landscape and urban planning. The work of these architects influenced Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann in Austria, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Peter Behrens in Germany, Eliel Saarinen and others in Scandinavia, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill, Greene & Greene in the USA....

Article

Gavin Stamp

(b Cobham, Kent, June 9, 1862; d Cobham, Feb 4, 1946).

English architect and writer, also active in South Africa and India . He was articled to a cousin, Arthur Baker, a former assistant of George Gilbert Scott I, in 1879 and attended classes at the Architectural Association and Royal Academy Schools before joining the office of George & Peto in London (1882), where he first met and befriended Edwin Lutyens. Baker set up in independent practice in 1890 but moved to South Africa in 1892 to join his brother Lionel Baker. In Cape Town he met Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, who directed his attention to the traditional European Cape Dutch architecture of the province and asked him to rebuild his house Groote Schuur (1893, 1897), now the official residence of South Africa’s prime ministers. Applying the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement to local conditions, Baker produced a series of houses, both in the Cape Province and the Transvaal, which were instrumental in the revival of Cape Dutch architecture. In ...

Article

Jean-François Pinchon

(b Paris, June 8, 1817; d Paris, May 22, 1885).

French architect and writer . He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and won the competition for the Prix de Rome in 1840. On his return to Paris from Rome he embarked on a brilliant administrative career, becoming Architecte en Chef, then Inspecteur Général, of the city of Paris, as well as Inspecteur Général des Edifices Diocésains. In the latter capacity, his work in Paris included completing the church of Ste Clothilde (1853–7), begun by Franz Christian Gau, designing the area around and restoring the Tour St Jacques (1854–6) and building the belfry of St Germain l’Auxerrois (1863), all in a Gothic Revival style. He also built the churches of St Denis (1866) at Argenteuil and St Ambroise (1869) in Paris in the Romanesque Revival style, although in general he was an eclectic architect. His two major works were the church of La Trinité (...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 18 October 1789, in Paris; died 4 February 1864, in Sceaux.

Painter, writer. Genre scenes, interiors with figures, landscapes, waterscapes, architectural views.

Nicolas Barbier studied under Xavier Leprince and subsequently taught composition to the son of Louis-Philippe. He painted genre scenes with the accent on background architectural motifs, exhibiting at the Paris Salon ...

Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Kristin E. Larsen

(b Elizabeth, NJ, May 11, 1905; d Seadrift, CA, Nov 21, 1964).

American writer and educator. She was an advocate for modern housing design and early federal housing programs. Born into an affluent family, Bauer briefly sought college training in architecture but attained the majority of her architecture and housing policy skills in the field. During a trip to Europe in 1926, Bauer discovered a passion for modern architecture. Writing an article that gained the attention of urban critic Lewis Mumford, she embarked on a subsequent visit in 1930 with letters of introduction to some of the most renowned European architects of the day, including Ernst May and Walter Gropius. She not only learned about housing design to maximize light and air and to utilize the site to advantage, but also investigated the benefits of large-scale development techniques and government support for housing. As a key contributor to the Museum of Modern Art’s 1933 exhibit on International Design, Bauer argued for greater recognition of housing as a centerpiece of the new modern aesthetic. In her groundbreaking book ...

Article

Nicholas Bullock

(b Krnov, Moravia [now in Czech Republic], 1872; d Vienna, 1938).

Austrian architect and writer of Moravian birth. He studied with Carl Hasenauer (1893), and with Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–6). He was one of the most successful of Wagner’s pupils. Along with Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich he was a founder-member of the Siebenerklub and one of the first members of the Secession (see Secession, §3). During 1902 he was one of the editors of Ver Sacrum and between 1900 and 1905 he was responsible for the design of the decoration and fitting out of a number of rooms at the annual exhibitions of the Secession.

Bauer’s early commissions were mainly suburban and country houses, first in Bohemia but later in Silesia and Vienna. With his international success in the competition for ‘Ein Haus eines Kunstfreundes’, organized by Alexander Koch in 1900, he acquired the reputation of being an adventurous and sympathetic interpreter of the new domestic style. His early designs show how the vernacular forms inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement could be simplified and reworked in a stark geometrical fashion, while the planning of such early houses as Villa Larisch (...

Article

Michael Bollé

(b Hamburg, March 19, 1833; d Karlsruhe, Dec 11, 1917).

German architect and urban planner. He attended the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover (1849–51) and then the Polytechnikum at Karlsruhe, where he passed the state examination in engineering in 1853. An important influence was his teacher (and later father-in-law), Friedrich Eisenlohr, who at that time received several commissions for railway construction in south-west Germany, and no doubt did much to encourage Baumeister in this field. Lines created under the latter’s direction were the Murgtalbahn from Rastatt to Weisenbach (1868), the line from Freiburg to Breisach (1870–71), and the Renchtalbahn from Appenweier to Oppenau (1876). As an urban planner, Baumeister laid out the Ringstrasse in Wiesbaden (1871). However, he turned more and more to theory, and his only notable later building is the Krankenhaus der Diakonissenanstalt (1888–90) in Karlsruhe. In 1862 he became a professor at the Karlsruhe Polytechnikum, where he lectured on bridge and tunnel construction and problems of city cleansing. In ...