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Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

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Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Milan, 1791; d Milan, March 28, 1872).

Italian painter and art historian. He was trained as a painter in the Neo-classical school of Giuseppe Bossi, and by Vincenzo Camuccini and Pietro Benvenuti. He was the author of Notizie sulla vita…e degli Sforza, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century, which largely established the canon of early Milanese artists. Calvi’s book was founded on his perceptive connoisseurship of painting and sculpture, and a good understanding of secondary literature. He made a thorough, intelligent use of primary sources including lapidary inscriptions, documents from the archives of Milan and Pavia, and also the then unpublished manuscript (compiled c. 1775) of Antonio Francesco Albuzzi. This work consisted of a collection of notes on the lives of Milanese artists, its author being the first secretary of the Accademia Braidense, where Giuseppe Bossi taught. Both Bossi and Calvi possessed copies of Albuzzi’s manuscript.

Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti, scultori e pittori che fiorirono in Milano durante il governo dei Visconti e degli Sforza...

Article

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(Francesco)

(b Ferrara, 26 Nov 1767; d Venice, 5 March 1834). Italian critic, art historian, theorist, bibliophile and painter. He was educated at the Collegio dei Nobili in Modena (1776–85). From 1788 to 1790 he lived in Rome, where he was admitted to the Società dell’Arcadia in 1788, and became interested in ancient ruins and contemporary artists (particularly Anton Raphael Mengs) as well as in the theories of Francesco Milizia. After 1807 he abandoned a stormy political career, and, having settled in Venice, devoted himself to scholarship and painting. In 1808 he published his treatise on aesthetics, Del bello, in which he laid out the principal tenets of his Enlightenment and Neo-classical aesthetics. He upheld the important role played by philosophy in education and in the practice of art, championed the cause of progress in art, and dealt with the concepts of ‘absolute beauty’, ‘relative beauty’, ‘ideal beauty’, ‘grace or grazia’, and ‘the sublime’. From ...

Article

[Nino]

(b Rome, Oct 15, 1826; d Pisa, Jan 31, 1903).

Italian painter and critic. He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti and Francesco Coghetti at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Legione Romane; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome. Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Emile François David (1824–91) and the English painter Charles Coleman (1807–74), who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton and George Heming Mason, and they became lifelong friends. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, ...

Article

Juanita M. Ellias

(b Paris, 1770; d Paris, March 26, 1849).

French architect and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where in 1797 he won first prize in the competition for the Prix de Rome. One of his projects as a pensionnaire in Rome was a proposed restoration of the Temple of Vesta (published posthumously). His career after his return to France was lacklustre, but commissions included restorations of the Hôtel de Bouillon, Paris, the Hôtel d’Arenberg, Brussels, where he installed a new library, an abattoir at Ménilmontant and several country houses, including one for M. Pepin at Villette-aux-Aulnes. Coussin is best known for Du génie de l’architecture (1822), published to great contemporary acclaim but now forgotten. In a text that ranged in content from the primitive hut to the latest Paris sewers, Coussin appealed for a return to a basic approach to architecture, attacking speculators for their commercial approach to design and architects for pandering to them. He hoped to convince the public of the value of design based on theory, rather than as a mere fashionable appliqué for standard building types. In high-flown language he contrasted the speculators’ materialism with the true ‘genius’ of architecture, and found the mathematical basis for each style, constructing a system for their acceptable use based on ‘sentiment, genius and taste’. His analysis was similar to that of Julien-David Le Roy in the 1760s and his language was sympathetic to such ascendant elements of Romanticism as Eclecticism and the Néo-Grec....

Article

E. D. Lilley

(b Reims, Oct 25, 1761; d Paris, Oct 25, 1833).

French writer and painter. He trained with the landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes and between 1793 and 1800 exhibited at the Salon such works as Moonlight on the Seashore (1793) and Landscape with Houses (1795). Personal circumstances forced him to abandon painting for government service, but he retained a wide range of cultural interests. His Théorie du paysage and Histoire de l’art du paysage are among a number of early 19th-century treatises that reflected and influenced a change towards a more naturalistic depiction of landscape. The Théorie follows Valenciennes’s seminal Eléments de perspective pratique (Paris, 1799–1800) in insisting on the necessity of studying from nature, although it pays lip-service to the traditional academic hierarchy of genres by preserving the primacy of historical landscape, where the figures, often heroes of Classical antiquity, are more important than the landscape background. Boime suggests that knowledge of a manuscript of Deperthes’s work influenced the Académie des Beaux-Arts towards instituting a Prix de Rome for historical landscape in ...

Article

Werner Szambien

(b 1769; d Paris, Sept 8, 1845).

French architect and writer. He was one of the few pupils of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was unsuccessful in the competition for the Prix de Rome in 1791, 1792 and 1794 but won in 1797 with a design for public granaries, which perfectly illustrated the contemporary tendency towards rationalism. While in Rome he designed an imperial library disguised as a restoration of the Temple de la Pudicité, drawings for which he exhibited at the Salons of 1802 and 1804. He was best known for his Architecture civile (1803), a collection of designs for simple houses of all sizes and a work that met the approval of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. This work was doubtless intended to assure its author a career in France, but his only known works under the Empire were the baths in Bourbonne (begun 1811) and the Préfecture in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). After ...

Article

Leah Lipton

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 18, 1766; d New York, Sept 28, 1839).

American painter, writer and Playwright. After working in England with Benjamin West between 1784 and 1787, Dunlap concentrated primarily on the theatre for the next 20 years. His two main interests are documented in his large Portrait of the Artist Showing his Picture of Hamlet to his Parents (1788; New York, NY Hist. Soc.). He wrote more than 30 plays and was called by some the ‘father of American drama’. He was the director and manager of the Park Theatre in New York from 1797 until its bankruptcy in 1805 and again, in its revived form, from 1806 to 1811. He began to paint miniatures to support his family in 1805 and travelled the East Coast of America as an itinerant artist. By 1817 he had become, in his own words, ‘permanently a painter’.

Dunlap always lived on the verge of poverty. To increase his income, he produced a large showpiece ...

Article

Werner Szambien

(b Paris, Sept 18, 1760; d Thiais, Dec 31, 1834).

French architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the most influential teachers of his time, and his radically rationalist approach, which emphasized priority of function and economy of means, was expressed in analytical writings that remained popular into the 20th century. He studied under Pierre Panseron (fl 1736) and from 1776 in the office of Etienne-Louis Boullée. He also took courses with Julien-David Le Roy at the Académie d’Architecture and participated in competitions under the guidance of Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. He twice came second in the Prix de Rome: in 1779 for a museum and in 1780 for a school. During the 1780s he worked as a draughtsman for Boullée and for the engraver Jean-François Janinet. In 1788 construction began in the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonnière, Paris, of his Maison Lathuille, a building with Néo-Grec decoration but with a layout characterized by its extreme simplicity. About 1790 he executed a series of drawings entitled ...

Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Rome, c. 1770; d Paris, Aug 16, 1829).

Spanish painter and art historian. He acquired his artistic training through study trips in Italy, France and England, and around 1800 he worked as a copier in the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. After the Peninsular War (1808–13) he was appointed court painter by King Ferdinand VII (25 Feb 1816). However, his importance in the history of Spanish art lies more in his role as art historian than in that of painter. His publications reveal an outstanding knowledge of the schools of art. The first is of special interest: as keeper of the Museo de Pinturas in Madrid (now the Museo del Prado) he wrote the first catalogue of the museum, indeed of any museum in Spain, in 1819, with subsequent editions in 1821, 1823, 1824 and 1828. In 1822 he published his Ensayo sobre las diferentes escuelas de pintura, an introductory manual for painting enthusiasts. Another work, unpublished, is preserved in the Museo Lázaro Galdiano in Madrid and bears the title ...

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Article

Robert E. McVaugh

(b Hamburg, Oct 13, 1748; d Göttingen, Sept 10, 1821).

German painter and art historian. He trained as a painter at the academy in Bayreuth before continuing his education in Rome under Pompeo Batoni and Giuseppe Bottani from 1761 to 1765. He then worked in Bologna, becoming a member of the Accademia di Belle Arti in 1769, the year he returned to Germany. He was court painter in Brunswick from 1769 to 1781, after which he moved to Göttingen, where he taught drawing and executed the Delivery of Briseis (1783; Bremen, priv. col.). In 1785, he began his association with the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, where he was charged initially with the care of the Kupferstichkabinett; by 1796 he also ran the painting gallery. His research on these collections, his lectures and writings such as Geschichte der zeichnenden Künste von ihrer Wiederauflebung bis auf den neuesten Zeiten influenced a generation of students, earning him the rank of Professor in 1813...

Article

(b Pontoise, Sept 20, 1762; d Paris, Oct 10, 1853).

French architect and writer. With his friend and collaborator, Charles Percier(-Bassant), he was one of the principal French architects of the 19th century and the best exponent of late Neo-classicism, or the Empire style. Born during the reign of Louis XVI, he died when Napoleon III was on the throne. Continuously, from 1800 to 1851, he held positions of the highest responsibility, supervising the construction of public buildings. As the architect to the government, he worked for Napoleon (see Bonaparte family §(1)), in Paris and at the châteaux of Saint-Cloud, Fontainebleau and Compiègne; he built the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Louvre) and started the construction of the arcades in Rue de Rivoli. During the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, he built the Chapelle Expiatoire, Rue d’Anjou, Paris, and supervised for a number of years the site of the Arc de Triomphe at the Etoile. For ...

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(b Paris, Feb 18, 1756; d Paris, Nov 11, 1842).

French painter, draughtsman and writer. Born of a Breton family living in Paris (the aristocratic de Saint-Germain was a later addition to his name), he trained c. 1774 in the studio of Louis-Jacques Durameau and at the Académie Royale. He became a fashionable painter, receiving numerous commissions from ecclesiastical and private patrons. His surviving paintings include an Assumption of the Virgin (Domfront, St Julien) and a full-length portrait of Maréchal de Richelieu (Paris, Carnavalet). He met and married a Polish artist, Anna Rajecka (c. 1760–1832), who was financially supported by King Stanislav II Poniatowski. He exhibited at the Salon until 1801.

During the Reign of Terror his aristocratic name rendered him suspect and he took refuge in Clermont-Ferrand, where he was appointed teacher of a free course in drawing, then Keeper of Monuments of the Puy-de-Dôme. On returning to Paris in 1797 he dedicated himself to writing. He contributed numerous articles to the daily ...

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Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Aix-en-Provence, Aug 17, 1739; d Aix-en-Provence, Dec 23, 1813).

French painter, draughtsman, sculptor, medallist and writer. He first trained under Claude Arnulphy at Aix, leaving for Rome c. 1761. He remained in Italy for ten years, studying the works of Raphael and other Old Masters (see fig.) as well as Polidoro da Caravaggio, whose monochrome frescoes Gibelin later imitated in France. In 1768 he won a prize at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Parma, with his Achilles Fighting the River Scamander (in situ; preparatory drawing in Stockholm, Nmus.). On his return to Paris in 1771 he was commissioned to execute a large number of monochrome frescoes as well as two paintings, The Blood-letting (1777; preparatory drawing at Poitiers, Mus. B.-A.) and Childbirth, for the new Ecole de Chirurgie, now the Faculté de Médecine (in situ). His works made over the next few years include the Genius of War and Mars for the pediments of the two south wings of the ...