1-20 of 25 results  for:

  • Artist, Architect, or Designer x
  • Art History and Theory x
  • Writer or Scholar x
  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

Juanita M. Ellias

(b Paris, 1770; d Paris, March 26, 1849).

French architect and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where in 1797 he won first prize in the competition for the Prix de Rome. One of his projects as a pensionnaire in Rome was a proposed restoration of the Temple of Vesta (published posthumously). His career after his return to France was lacklustre, but commissions included restorations of the Hôtel de Bouillon, Paris, the Hôtel d’Arenberg, Brussels, where he installed a new library, an abattoir at Ménilmontant and several country houses, including one for M. Pepin at Villette-aux-Aulnes. Coussin is best known for Du génie de l’architecture (1822), published to great contemporary acclaim but now forgotten. In a text that ranged in content from the primitive hut to the latest Paris sewers, Coussin appealed for a return to a basic approach to architecture, attacking speculators for their commercial approach to design and architects for pandering to them. He hoped to convince the public of the value of design based on theory, rather than as a mere fashionable appliqué for standard building types. In high-flown language he contrasted the speculators’ materialism with the true ‘genius’ of architecture, and found the mathematical basis for each style, constructing a system for their acceptable use based on ‘sentiment, genius and taste’. His analysis was similar to that of Julien-David Le Roy in the 1760s and his language was sympathetic to such ascendant elements of Romanticism as Eclecticism and the Néo-Grec....

Article

Werner Szambien

(b 1769; d Paris, Sept 8, 1845).

French architect and writer. He was one of the few pupils of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was unsuccessful in the competition for the Prix de Rome in 1791, 1792 and 1794 but won in 1797 with a design for public granaries, which perfectly illustrated the contemporary tendency towards rationalism. While in Rome he designed an imperial library disguised as a restoration of the Temple de la Pudicité, drawings for which he exhibited at the Salons of 1802 and 1804. He was best known for his Architecture civile (1803), a collection of designs for simple houses of all sizes and a work that met the approval of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. This work was doubtless intended to assure its author a career in France, but his only known works under the Empire were the baths in Bourbonne (begun 1811) and the Préfecture in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). After ...

Article

Werner Szambien

(b Paris, Sept 18, 1760; d Thiais, Dec 31, 1834).

French architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the most influential teachers of his time, and his radically rationalist approach, which emphasized priority of function and economy of means, was expressed in analytical writings that remained popular into the 20th century. He studied under Pierre Panseron (fl 1736) and from 1776 in the office of Etienne-Louis Boullée. He also took courses with Julien-David Le Roy at the Académie d’Architecture and participated in competitions under the guidance of Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. He twice came second in the Prix de Rome: in 1779 for a museum and in 1780 for a school. During the 1780s he worked as a draughtsman for Boullée and for the engraver Jean-François Janinet. In 1788 construction began in the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonnière, Paris, of his Maison Lathuille, a building with Néo-Grec decoration but with a layout characterized by its extreme simplicity. About 1790 he executed a series of drawings entitled ...

Article

(b Pontoise, Sept 20, 1762; d Paris, Oct 10, 1853).

French architect and writer. With his friend and collaborator, Charles Percier(-Bassant), he was one of the principal French architects of the 19th century and the best exponent of late Neo-classicism, or the Empire style. Born during the reign of Louis XVI, he died when Napoleon III was on the throne. Continuously, from 1800 to 1851, he held positions of the highest responsibility, supervising the construction of public buildings. As the architect to the government, he worked for Napoleon (see Bonaparte family §(1)), in Paris and at the châteaux of Saint-Cloud, Fontainebleau and Compiègne; he built the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Louvre) and started the construction of the arcades in Rue de Rivoli. During the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, he built the Chapelle Expiatoire, Rue d’Anjou, Paris, and supervised for a number of years the site of the Arc de Triomphe at the Etoile. For ...

Article

Thomas von Joest

[Jakob-Ignaz]

(b Cologne, Aug 20, 1792; d Paris, March 25, 1867).

French architect, architectural historian, urban planner and writer. He was the only son of a family of prosperous craftsmen from the Rhineland who acquired French nationality after Cologne was annexed by France in 1794. Hittorff was apprenticed as a mason and studied mathematics and drawing with an architectural career in prospect. As a French citizen he was then able to study in Paris, where he moved in 1810; he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1811 and joined the atelier of Charles Percier. In the same year he assisted on the first important metal structure erected in France, the iron dome of the Halle au Blé (1808–13), under the direction of François-Joseph Bélanger. Following the return of the Rhineland provinces to Prussia in 1814, Hittorff was unable to continue with his French education and could not enter for the Prix de Rome. However, he and another young architect, ...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Nikol’skoye-Cherenchitsy estate, nr Torzhok, 1751; d Moscow, 2/Jan 3, 1804).

Russian architect, theorist, illustrator, poet, Musician and inventor. An enlightened dilettante and encyclopedist from a princely family, he studied architecture on his own and travelled in western Europe (1775, 1776–7), above all in France and Italy. On his return to Russia L’vov worked at the Foreign Ministry and acquired a reputation as an architect from the early 1780s. His earliest works—the Neva Gate (1780–87) of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, the single-domed cathedral of St Joseph (1780–98) in Mogilyov and the similar five-domed church (1785–96) at the monastery of SS Boris and Gleb in Torzhok—are characterized by their austere simplicity, spareness of form and pronounced monumentality. They became the model for many Russian Neo-classical churches of the late 18th century and the early 19th. L’vov’s works for St Petersburg include the Post Office (1782–9), unexecuted designs for the Cabinet on the Nevsky Prospect (...

Article

Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...

Article

Gérard Rousset-Charny

(b Paris, May 9, 1743; d Saint-Denis, nr Paris, Nov 9, 1807).

French architect and writer. He studied at the Académie Royale d’Architecture and the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, as a pupil of Jacques-François Blondel and Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. In 1781 he was commissioned with Jacques Molinos to roof the courtyard of Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières’s Halle au Blé, Paris, for which they designed an innovative light timber dome (subsequently replaced by a cast-iron dome by François-Joseph Bélanger). Thereafter they worked on many projects together (see Molinos, Jacques); examples include the Halle aux Draps (1786), Théâtre Feydeau and Hôtel Marbeuf (both 1789) and a lecture theatre at the Jardin des Plantes, all in Paris, together with the Hôtel de Ville at Auteuil (1792). Legrand’s most important independent works are two great houses in Paris. The Hôtel de Gallifet (1775–96) has a block-like appearance, with no end pavilions or side wings as became common in the 1770s; it is set off by colossal Ionic colonnades, engaged on the garden front and forming a portico on the entrance façade. Like most of his work, the interiors are designed in a style inspired by the Antique, which was then in vogue. Engaged columns articulate the walls, and in the Chambre de Parade they frame bays stuccoed with grotesques derived from Pompeii. The Hôtel de Jarnac (...

Article

Mario Bencivenni

(b Ancona, Dec 6, 1799; d Florence, March 11, 1872).

Italian architect and writer. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome before spending some time in Vicenza and in Venice, where he knew the art critic and theorist Conte Leopoldo Cicognara; he then moved to Florence in 1825. During his studies in the Veneto he completed his Neo-classical training begun in Rome and at the same time made a careful study of medieval architecture. These two stylistic influences prevailed from his earliest architectural projects (a parade ground for Vicenza and a theatre for Hamburg) and from his first executed works: the restoration of the Palazzo Ginori (1826) in the Piazza Santa Croce, Florence, the façade of S Francesco (1829) at Bibbiena, near Arezzo, and, at Ancona, the decoration of the Teatro delle Muse and the restoration of the dome and campanile of the cathedral (both 1835). Matas’s Neo-classicism was infused by an eclecticism that is particularly evident in his works for the ...

Article

Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...

Article

Brian Austen

(b Prestonkirk, Lothian, July 20, 1765; d Carlisle, June 18, 1844).

Scottish architect and writer. The son of a stonemason, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker at East Linton and practised his trade as a journeyman in Edinburgh. In 1788 he went to London and there supplemented his earnings from cabinetmaking by teaching mathematics at an evening school for mechanics. The additional money helped him publish his first work, The Carpenter’s New Guide (1792), and then the Principles of Architecture (1795–8). In 1800 he established himself as an architect in Glasgow and in 1802 produced designs for Carlton Place, Laurieston. Subsequent commissions were: Buchanan Cottage, Cruxton; Grey House, Glasgow; the Coffee House, Paisley; a timber bridge over the River Clyde (all c. 1805); and Yorkshire House, Partick (1806). Hugh Montgomerie, 12th Earl of Eglinton (1739–1819), employed him to lay out the town of Ardrossan, Ayrshire, at the same time as harbour works were progressing under the direction of Thomas Telford. Nicholson’s appointment in ...

Article

(b Goyencourt, Nov 25, 1765; d Paris, Feb 13, 1840).

French designer, engraver and architect. He trained as an architect and in 1792 won the Grand Prix de Rome and travelled to Rome. He was responsible for thousands of engraved plates between 1800 and 1815, notably those for Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine’s Recueil de décorations intérieures (Paris, 1801), the seminal publication of the Empire style. Normand’s own designs in the Neo-classical style were published in his Décorations intérieures et extérieures (1803), on which he collaborated with the sculptor, Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet; its 48 plates include designs for furniture, vases and ornaments.

Recueil varié de plans et de façades (Paris, 1815) Nouveau parallèle des ordres (Paris, 1819); Eng. trans. by A. Pugin (London, 1829); Ger. trans. by M. H. Jacobi and M. March, 2 vols (Potsdam, 1830–36) with M. Normand: Modèles d’orfèvrerie (Paris, 1822) Cours de dessin industriel (Paris, 1823, rev. 1841) Le Guide de l’ornemaniste (Paris, 1826, rev. 1847)...

Article

Peter Boutourline Young

(b Milan, 1739; d Milan, 1825).

Italian scientist, philosopher, writer and architect. His early education took place in Milan, Monza, Rome and Naples between 1756 and 1765. Having joined the Barnabite order in 1756, he became a member of the regular clergy of S Paolo, Milan. In 1766 he was appointed professor-in-ordinary of mathematics at the Università di S Alessandro in Milan, where he also taught chemistry, mineralogy and canon law, and in 1772 he became professor of natural history. While best known for his work in geology and natural history, he is also remembered for his treatise Dell’architettura: Dialoghi (1770), which includes all the plans of the church of S Giuseppe at Seregno. Pini himself designed the Neo-classical interior of the church, which was completed by Giulio Galliori (1715–95). The treatise is arranged in the form of two Socratic dialogues by mathematics students in Milan and Longone. The first deals with the dome and the centrally planned church. The students exchange opinions on the mathematical calculation of domes, arches and vaults; Francesco Borromini is praised for his great technical ability, while his successors, in particular the French, are condemned for being responsible for ‘depraving the good taste of architecture’. The students conclude that intrinsic beauty is to be found in simple geometric shapes and that architecture can derive examples from the classical repertory. The second dialogue deals with fortifications and is of considerable importance for the study of the engineer ...

Article

John Martin Robinson

(b London, bapt Jan 8, 1745; d Charlotte Town, PEI, Canada, May 24, 1820).

English architect. He started as a bricklayer in Westminster, London, before progressing to architecture. He was among the more idiosyncratic of English Neo-classical architects and one of the pioneers in designing model farm buildings and cottages in the age of agricultural improvement. A fine group of farm buildings by him of c. 1790 survives at Allerton Park, N. Yorks. His plans show a preoccupation with geometrical pattern-making, and his principal executed work, Belle Isle (designed in 1774–5 for Thomas English), Lake Windermere, Cumbria, is a circular house with a segmental dome and portico, similar to a miniature Pantheon. It was widely influential, encouraging Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, to build circular houses at Ballyscullion (begun 1787), Co. Londonderry, and Ickworth (begun 1796), Suffolk, as well as inspiring a full-scale copy in Switzerland, the Villa la Gordanne (1800) at Perroy, Lake Geneva. Like many of his English architect contemporaries, Plaw was interested in novel materials and forms of construction and was among those who experimented with pisé, a French form of mud walling....

Article

Marcus Whiffen

(b ?Edinburgh, c. 1736; d London, 1813).

English architect and writer. He began his career as a draughtsman with Robert and James Adam and accompanied the latter on his Grand Tour in 1760–63. His association with the Adams continued after his employment in their London office came to an end, probably in 1765, and he designed ceilings at Kedleston Hall, Derbys, in the late 1760s. Other buildings that received ceilings designed by him included Drapers’ Hall (c. 1774; destr.), London; Sir Lawrence Dundas’s house (1771), Edinburgh; Brockenhurst Park (c. 1775), Hants; and Benton House (1773), Northumb. Although these and his published designs are Neo-classical, his most notable complete building, Stapleford Church (1783), Leics, is Gothic Revival. Richardson’s many publications, of which the most ambitious was The New Vitruvius Britannicus, recording ‘the taste and science of the English nation in its style of Architecture at the close of the eighteenth century’, were not enough to save him from poverty in old age....

Article

Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, June 4, 1743; d Paris, Sept 26, 1828).

French architect, teacher and writer. He was the son of a building contractor. After initial training in Lyon, he studied in Paris from 1763 in Jacques-François Blondel’s Ecole des Arts. In 1770 he came to the notice of Jacques-Germain Soufflot for his refutation of the arguments raised in 1769 by Pierre Patte against the sound construction of Ste Geneviève (now the Panthéon), Paris, and Soufflot appointed him inspector of works at Ste Geneviève. After the death of the architect in 1780, Rondelet directed the works with Maximilien Brébion (1716–96) and François Soufflot ‘le Romain’ (before 1764–1802), a position he retained during the Revolution (1789–95). Rondelet resolved the problems of stability that had become apparent in 1796 by reinforcing the dome piers and the engaged columns. The building was considered complete and stable in 1812. Meanwhile, he made a study tour of Italy (1783–4) and then worked as an expert and theorist of construction techniques, teaching at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, from ...