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American, 20th century, male.

Born 11 October 1891, in Cleveland (Ohio); died 30 December 1948, in Woodstock (New York), committed suicide.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, printmaker, lithographer. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Precisionism (or Cubist Realism).

George Ault grew up in London where his father worked in ink manufacturing and studied at the Slade School of Fine Art and St John's Wood School of Art. He returned to the USA in ...


Lewis Kachur

(b Argenteuil-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, May 13, 1882; d Paris, Aug 31, 1963).

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912. For a long time it was impossible to distinguish their respective contributions to Cubism, for example in the development of Collage, while Picasso’s fame and notoriety overshadowed the quiet life of Braque.

His family moved in 1890 to Le Havre, where his father had a painting and decorating business. In 1897 Braque entered the municipal art school, where he met and became friendly with Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy. He joined them in Paris at the turn of the century and, after a year of army service, settled in Montmartre in 1902. He began to visit the Musée du Louvre, where he encountered van Gogh’s work, and that October he began to study at the Académie Humbert, where his fellow students included Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. The following year he studied briefly with ...


Anthony Parton


(b Moscow, Nov 8, 1886; d Moscow, Oct 1, 1958).

Russian painter. He studied under Konstantin Yuon and in the studio of Il’ya Mashkov (1904–5), then at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin. In 1909 he exhibited with Golden Fleece and in 1910 was a founder-member of the avant-garde exhibiting society, the Jack of Diamonds, of which he remained an active member until its dissolution in 1916. Fal’k was well known for his portraits and still-lifes of this period. His elongated seated figures of 1913 reveal a study of Cézanne, while the portraits and still-lifes of 1914 betray the influence of Picasso’s early Cubist work. The Portrait of the Tatar Journalist Midkhata Refatov (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) shows his mature style in the Cubist idiom.

After the 1917 Revolution, Fal’k taught painting at Svomas (Free Art Studios) (1918–20) and Vkhutemas (Higher Artistic and Technical Workshops) (1920–28...


Ronald Alley

(b Warsaw, Dec 24, 1883; d Paris, May 12, 1970).

Polish painter, active in France. He began a course in engineering at Warsaw Polytechnic in 1902 but also enrolled as a student at the School of Fine Arts, and in 1905 he gave up engineering to devote himself entirely to painting. In 1907 he arrived in Paris, intending to stay for only a year, but lived in France until his death. He attended the Académie La Palette for several months and in 1909 visited Brittany, in particular Le Pouldu and Pont-Aven, where he went to work for a number of summers, and where he met and became friendly with the Polish painter Władysław Ślewiński, who had been a member of Paul Gauguin’s circle.

By 1911 Hayden’s work began to show the influence not only of Ślewiński and Gauguin but also of Paul Cézanne. His interest in formal simplification and pictorial construction in a manner indebted to Cézanne very gradually led him, from ...


David Elliott


(b Bagdadi, Georgia, July 19, 1893; d Moscow, April 14, 1930).

Russian poet, critic, graphic designer and painter of Georgian birth. Although best known as a poet and playwright he studied painting at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1911–14) and, as a member of the Futurist group Hylea, was a pioneer of what later became known as Performance art. Mayakovsky’s family moved to Moscow on the death of his father in 1906, and he soon became involved in left-wing activities, for which he was repeatedly arrested. On passing the entrance examination of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in August 1911, his political activities shifted their focus to bohemian épatage. In the class for figure painting Mayakovsky met David Burlyuk, who with his brothers Nikolay Burlyuk (1890–1920) and Vladimir Burlyuk (1886–1917) and the ‘aviator poet’ Vasily Kamensky (1864–1961), formed the core of the Russian Futurist movement. Adopting a stance similar to that of Marinetti, whose Futurist manifesto (...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 29, 1922 ; d 2015).

Argentine painter and diplomat. Although trained as an architect, he began painting while living in Paris as a diplomat from 1948 to 1950, taking a particular interest in the structural methods of Cubism, the color sense of Pierre Bonnard, and the subtlety of Paul Klee’s paintings; his concern with light also emerged at this time. On his return to Buenos Aires in 1950 he generally used geometric motifs in his paintings, creating dynamic compositions from the tensions and rhythms produced by scattered squares, triangles, and, above all, circles. In 1952 he helped found the Artistas Modernos de la Argentina.

Ocampo returned to Europe as a diplomat in 1956, living in Rome until 1959 and in Paris from 1961 to 1966. Although he softened the geometrical severity of his work, he continued to employ a meticulous technique, using a form of pointillism to render evanescent forms and a diffuse atmosphere. He concentrated his attention on the relationship between large and small forms, leading to their fusion with the background into single planes of color, with the smaller elements gathered together or expanded in freely rendered rhythms so as to occupy the whole surface. He continued to use these dynamic patterns of colored shapes, but after ...


Wilford W. Scott

(b Philadelphia, PA, Oct 15, 1881; d Philadelphia, Oct 13, 1918).

American painter and photographer. After training as an architect at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (A.B., 1903), he studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, also in Philadelphia, from 1903 to 1906 under William Merritt Chase, with whom he travelled to Europe. From 1907 to 1909 he lived mostly in Paris, where he saw the work of major avant-garde artists, including Cézanne, Picasso and Matisse, and benefited from contact with Leo Stein, an important collector and writer. By 1909 Schamberg had responded to the example of Cézanne’s paintings, including simplified and more solid forms in his own work. Following his participation in the Armory Show in 1913, Cubism became the dominant element of his art, modified in such works as Figure B, Geometric Patterns (1913; Fort Worth, TX, Amon Carter Mus.) by his use of vibrant colour. About 1915 Schamberg met Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia in New York through Walter Arensberg and in works such as ...


American, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1893, in Pawtucket (Rhode Island); died 15 May 1952, in Dingman's Ferry (Pennsylvania).

Painter. Interiors, architectural views, landscapes, urban landscapes. Murals.

Precisionism (or Cubist Realism).

Niles Spencer studied at the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence and at the Art Students League in New York, where he attended the workshops of Georges Bellow and Robert Henri in ...



(b Oryol, 1886; d Moscow, 1961).

Russian painter. She received her initial artistic education in Moscow at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1905–9), Konstantin Yuon’s Art School (1906–9), where she may have met Lyubov’ Popova, and in 1909 at the Art School of Istvan Kiss where she met Vladimir Favorsky and Konstantin Istomin (1887–1942). In November 1912 she went to Paris with Popova to see Matisse’s work but was influenced by Cubism and studied at the Académie de La Palette under Jean Metzinger, Henri Le Fauconnier and André Dunoyer de Segonzac. From them she assimilated the principles of Cubism, as in the monochrome canvas Guitar: Fugue (1914; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), where the instrument is fragmented into broadly defined interpenetrating planes intersected by sheet music and the picture surface is flattened by lettering and numbers. In late 1913 Udal’tsova returned to Russia and worked in Vladimir Tatlin’s studio, known as the Tower, in Moscow, together with Aleksandr Vesnin and Popova. Udal’tsova continued working in a Cubist idiom producing such works as ...