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Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 22 August 1920, in Genoa.

Painter, sculptor (including bronze), engraver, designer, collage artist.

The son of Piedmontese parents, Enrico Accatino studied at the fine arts academy in Rome from 1942 to 1945, and was a pupil of Felice Casorati. In ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 22 November 1926, in Rödichen-Schnepfenthal (Thuringia); died 30 December 1989, in Meissen.

Painter (gouache/mixed media), sculptor, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver (including wood), lithographer. Figures, interiors with figures, landscapes.

Gerhard Altenbourg was sent to the Front in 1944 and was wounded there. After the war he worked as a journalist. In ...


Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1950.

Born 25 April 1921, in Amsterdam; died 4 March 2006, in Zurich.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, collage artist, sculptor, lithographer. Nudes, portraits, landscapes, animals. Murals.

CoBrA group.

Appel was a contemporary of Corneille at the Amsterdam Academy of Fine Arts, where he studied from 1940 to 1943. His interests were varied: impressionism, the Paris School, primitive arts - African art in particular - and Picasso, and his work reveals a mixture of influences from Picasso, Klee and Matisse. In 1946, he travelled to Belgium with Corneille and exhibited for the first time in the same year. In 1947, he met Constant. The following year he, Corneille and Constant formed the ...


Greek, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1954, in Athens.

Draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, video artist. Multimedia.

Michalis Arfaras first studied painting at the school of fine arts in Athens between 1972 and 1974. He continued his studies at the college of fine arts in Brunswick in Germany where he specialised in engraving and produced book illustrations and comic strips. He now lives and works in Hildesheim where he teaches graphic art at the university....


Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.


Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...


Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1958.

Born 26 February 1937, in Madrid.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, decorative designer, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Scenes with figures, figures, portraits. Stage sets.

Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

Eduardo Arroyo was educated at the Lycée Français in Madrid and then at the School of Journalism. At the age of 21, he left Franco's Spain for Paris, where he was to remain in exile for some 20 years. Although his original intention was to be a journalist rather than a painter, he saw painting as the most accessible and effective medium for his main aim, which was political militancy. He taught himself to paint, but this was made easier by the fact that it was not so much any possible aesthetic dimension to the work that interested him, but rather its immediate intelligibility and the power of the image. He brought together a mixture of techniques to create the effective image. Collage in its various forms was a constant feature of his style. In his early work, he often turned to what was then called 'Modification': that is, taking either a genuine picture from a second-hand shop, or a reproduction (as in the case of a work by Goya, Velázquez or Miró), and superimposing pictorial additions to alter the meaning, generally with the aim of being controversial and often humorous as well. He rapidly became a master of minimalist techniques, and soon began to exhibit at group shows. Some of these early shows were at the traditional exhibition centres, such as the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui and the Salon de Mai. He was an influential member of the Salon de la Jeune Peinture, where he exhibited from 1960 onwards, and his exhibitions there between 1964 and 1969 (with Aillaud and Récalcati) triggered militant activity that led to a temporary change in the group's name....


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 22 October 1956, in Nantes.

Painter (including mixed media), pastellist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Figure compositions, figures.

Figuration Libre (related to).

Blais studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Rennes between 1974 and 1979, where his teachers included Pierre Antoniucci. He lives and works in Paris and Vence. For an exhibition in Rennes in ...


British, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 3 May 1965, in Darvel (Ayrshire), Scotland.

Sculptor, installation artist, printmaker. Figures, flowers. Multimedia.

Christine Borland studied at the Glasgow School of Art (1983-1987), and the University of Ulster, Belfast (1987-1988). She lives and works in Glasgow. Her work deals with the ways in which life is exploited and devalued by social systems and institutions, such as hospitals, prisons, police forces and the army. Borland uses images from forensic and medical science in her work, as in ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Limoges.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist, engraver.

Conceptual Art.

Bouillon lives and works in Bagnolet, on the outskirts of Paris, and has taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon since 1988.

He collects objects, haphazardly, and subsequently uses then as symbols. The same object, the same figure, can take on several functions or be used to signify several different things, until it sometimes completely loses its own identity, and is no longer any more than the function it has been given. This was the case, throughout one period of his career, with his objects in stone, wood or metal. They were covered in ashes, so that one could no longer see the material, and could only focus on the function given by him to the object....


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950, in St-Ouen.

Sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, engraver.

In his sculptures Bourdin examines the ways in which materials can be displayed. Thus, from long, rigid trestles he hangs wooden components, which become kinds of mobile and archaic decorations. Bourdin was awarded the Créteil sculpture prize in ...


French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 6 October 1952, in Bourgoin.

Sculptor, installation artist, lithographer.

Marie Bourget lives and works in Paris. Her work covers a vast area, including picture and idiom. Her installations involve interaction between the object, its visual interpretation and its title. Idiom is present everywhere in her works, but used with a more playful aim than was the case with the generation of Conceptual artists. She presents graphic geometric forms which make reference to those used by the artists of Minimal Art; like them, she designs her pieces and then has them realised by others. The objects then become emblematic images, archetypes of representation which become almost abstract. The materials are simple, such as iron, wood, glass, paper, string, Perspex and photographs. The colours are dark, 'descriptive', and applied thickly, without reflections or light effects. The objects presented make reference to three orders: natural, architectural and cultural. Then, Marie Bourget plays on the many possible meanings for a form, overturning usual perceptions by changes of genre and order. In this way, a tiny sheet of translucent paper with a crenellated border does indeed become a castle when held against the wall, its shadow acquiring all the importance claimed by its title. ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1882, in Argenteuil; died 31 August 1963, in Paris.

Painter, collage artist, engraver, sculptor. Scenes with figures, figures, interiors with figures, still-lifes, landscapes.

Georges Braque was born in Argenteuil, a suburb north of Paris, but spent most of his youth in Le Havre as his father, who was a keen amateur painter from life, moved his decorating business to Le Havre in 1890. After a traditional education, Braque began attending evening classes in 1897–1899 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre, where he became friends with Raoul Dufy and Achille Friesz, older students who were studying with Charles Marie with Lhuillier, an old painter from Normandy who had known Johan Jongkind and Eugéne Boudin. Abandoning his studies, Braque worked in his father’s business for 17 years, where he learned a number of tricks of the trade, such as fake wood (using a house painter’s comb) and marble effects, which he later introduced into his painting. He continued his apprenticeship with a friend of his father’s and then went to Paris in 1900. Following his military service, Braque made frequent study trips to the Louvre, the Musée du Luxembourg, the Galerie Durand-Ruel, and the Galerie Vollard, and enrolled at the Académie Humbert. There he associated with Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. He also reunited with his friends Dufy and Friesz and, for a time, attended Léon Bonnat’s studio at the École des Beaux-Arts with them. In 1904, he spent the summer in Honfleur with Dufy and Friesz. In 1905, Braque was greatly impressed by the Fauve room at the Salon d’Automne, discovering in this style a physical quality. In 1906, he accompanied Friesz on his second trip to Antwerp, and in 1907, they went to the south of France, staying in Estaque and La Ciotat....


Lewis Kachur

(b Argenteuil-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, May 13, 1882; d Paris, Aug 31, 1963).

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912. For a long time it was impossible to distinguish their respective contributions to Cubism, for example in the development of Collage, while Picasso’s fame and notoriety overshadowed the quiet life of Braque.

His family moved in 1890 to Le Havre, where his father had a painting and decorating business. In 1897 Braque entered the municipal art school, where he met and became friendly with Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy. He joined them in Paris at the turn of the century and, after a year of army service, settled in Montmartre in 1902. He began to visit the Musée du Louvre, where he encountered van Gogh’s work, and that October he began to study at the Académie Humbert, where his fellow students included Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. The following year he studied briefly with ...


Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 15 June 1903, in Piatra Neamt; died 12 March 1966, in Paris.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, pastellist, sculptor, ceramicist, engraver, draughtsman. Figures, portraits, landscapes, animals.

Surrealist group.

Victor Brauner's father ran a sawmill in Piatra Neamt, a small village in the Carpathian mountains in Romania. Brauner said that his childhood was marked by the atmosphere of a 'small village by the edge of a river', where he watched 'giant tree trunks, tied into rafts, on which people lived as they went down the river'. As a child, he witnessed the spiritualist sessions in which his father participated. After a brief stay in Vienna where he began his schooling and a trip down the Danube, he was back in Romania where he was drafted into compulsory work from 1916 to 1918. A pupil at the Braila evangelical school, he developed a passion for zoology and painted in the Belu cemetery in Bucharest. Between 1921 and 1923, he took courses at the fine arts school and the free academy in Bucharest, then spent time by the Black Sea in Falticeni and Balchík, where he painted his 'Cézannian landscapes'. In 1924, he founded the review ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 June 1906, in Ste-Croix-Hague (Manche); died 1992.

Engraver, collage artist, sculptor, poet.

Revolutionary Surrealism group.

Max Bucaille was inspired by the collages of Max Ernst that he found in old magazines when he was a student at the Sorbonne in the Faculty of Science. He was a mathematics teacher at the lycée in Creteil and published collections of poetry, collages and reproductions of his gouaches in ...


Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1915, in Città di Castello; died 13 February 1995, in Nice, France.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, sculptor, engraver.

Gruppo Origine.

Alberto Burri took up painting very late. He began by studying medicine, qualifying in 1940, with the intention of settling in Africa. He was sent there during the war as an army doctor. In ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active since 1961 active in France.

Born 26 April 1922, in Haine-St-Pierre; died 27 September 2005, in Paris.

Sculptor, collage artist, photomontage artist, monotype artist, illustrator. Designs for jewellery, monuments.

Kinetic Art.

Groups: Hainaut Surrealist group, Haute Nuit, Madí, CoBrA.

Pol Bury first stayed in France between 1929 and 1932. In 1938 he attended the academy of fine arts in Mons. In 1940 he made his debut in Surrealism with a journal entitled ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1907, in Moligt, near Alep, of Armenian origin; died 12 August 2000, in Marsac-sur-l'Isle (Dordogne).

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, pastellist, collage artist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist. Nudes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes. Designs for tapestries, stage sets...


British, 20th century, male.

Dinos born in 1962, Jake born in 1966.

Sculptors, draughtsmen, engravers, installation artists. Figures.

Young British Artists.

The artists Dinos and Jake Chapman are brothers and began working together in 1992, delegating the execution of their pieces to assistants. They live and work in London....