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Article

Mark H. Sandler

[Shijun]

(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 August 1850, in Manchester, New Hampshire; died 1921, in Lynn (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator, teacher.

William Johnson Bixbee studied at the Lowell Institute with Tommaso Inglaris, and in Boston under the supervision of Waterman and Triscott. He was a member of the Boston Art Club. He served in the Navy and travelled all over the world, especially to Japan and South America. His landscapes and seascapes such as ( ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 26 February 1870, in Nashville (Tennessee); died 1955, in Santa Barbara (California).

Painter, illustrator, teacher. Portraits.

Dudley Carpenter studied at the Art Students' League of New York and under Jean-Paul Laurens, Benjamin-Constant and Amam-Jean in Paris. He exhibited with the Paris Salon and won an honourable mention in ...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Catherine Harding

(b Lomello, Dec 24, 1296; d Avignon, c. 1354).

Italian parish priest, manuscript illuminator and scholar. His drawings explored the connections between vision, reason and spirituality. In particular, he was drawn to the idea of training the ‘inner eye’ of reason, and he hoped that his images would provide tools for spiritual discernment. He worked as a schoolmaster and priest until 1329, when he fled Pavia for political reasons and entered the papal court in Avignon. One year later, he was employed as a scribe in the office of the papal penitentiary.

He produced two illuminated works, both of which are untitled (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Pal. lat. 1993 and Vat. lat. 6435). The former, known simply as the Palatinus manuscript, encompasses 52 large individual parchment sheets drawn in pen and ink with images on both sides; they feature schematic compositions that combine portolan charts, zodiacs, calendars and human figures, to form complex composite images. The second work, the Vaticanus manuscript, is done in pen and ink on paper and is more of an author’s daybook, collecting thoughts, meditations and images on a variety of topics. His work was not known until the publication of the Palatinus manuscript by R. G. Salomon in ...

Article

Native American (Eastern Band of Cherokee), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1957, in Baltimore.

Multimedia artist, photographer, illustrator, basket-weaver with paper.

Shan Goshorn, given the Cherokee Wolf Clan name of Yellow Moon, began training in silversmithing at the Cleveland Institute of Art and transferred to the Atlanta College of Art for her final year, receiving a BFA degree in painting and photography (double major) in ...

Article

American, 19th century, female.

Born 24 October 1863, in Covington (Illinois); died 1941.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, writer, teacher.

Bertha E. Jaques studied in Chicago, where she settled. She founded the Chicago Society of Etchers in 1910.

Patterson, Joby: Bertha E. Jaques and the Chicago Society of Etchers...

Article

Mayching Kao

[K’u-ch’an]

(b Gaotang County, Shandong Province, Jan 11, 1899; d Beijing, June 11, 1983).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and art educator. Coming from a poor peasant family, Li took up hard labour to earn his way through art school in Beijing. He also studied with Xu Beihong and Qi Baishi; the latter considered Li his best student. Li was active as an art teacher in Beijing from 1926, notably at the Central Academy of Fine Arts from 1949 until his death in 1983. He specialized in bird-and-flower painting in the free and spontaneous xieyi (‘sketching the idea’) style that captures the spirit of the subjects through expressive calligraphic brushwork and simplified forms. He was known for his depiction of birds of prey throughout his career, but the works of his later years are particularly free and bold. The phrase ‘Pan of the south and Li of the north’ was coined in recognition of the similarity of Li’s style with that of Pan Tianshou.

Huaniao renwu bufen...

Article

Native American (Tongva-Acjachemen), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1952, in California.

Painter, writer, tribal scholar, cartoonist, basket weaver, illustrator, indigenous language activist.

As cofounder of Advocates for Indigenous California Language Survival, L. Frank Manriquez, a California Indian artist and activist, has become particularly associated with the movement for language revitalisation and recovery of indigenous knowledge in the state. A multi-talented figure with a gift for humour, especially in her cartoon works, she has exhibited nationally and internationally, and is a board member of the Cultural Conservancy, supporting indigenous rights, self-determination and the protection of native lands. She also makes and teaches about baskets and is a board member of the California Indian Basketweavers Association. As the author of ...

Article

Zhong Hong

[Li Shu-t’ung; Wen Tao; hao Guanghou, Shutong; Xianying, Hongyi fashi]

(b Tainjin, Oct 23, 1880; d Quanzhou, Fujian Province, Oct 13, 1942)

Chinese painter, calligrapher, art educator and musician. A colourful and influential figure in the history of 20th-century Chinese art, he pioneered the introduction of Western arts, including commercial art, woodcut printmaking, modern drama and music, into China.

Li Shutong became interested in Western art at the Nanyang Public School in Shanghai. In 1905 he entered the Tokyo School of Fine Art in Ueno Park, where he studied oil painting under Kuroda Seiki, a leading Japanese painter trained in Paris. While in Tokyo he also attended piano courses at a music school. A lover of the theatre, he wrote some of the first modern dialogue plays in Chinese and put them on stage with fellow Chinese students. Back in China in 1910, Li taught graphic art at a technical college in Tianjin. From the following year he taught art and music in a girls’ school in Shanghai, where he later founded Wenmeihui (Literature and Art Society) and became for a short time art and literature editor of the ...

Article

(b London, Sept 9, 1694; d London, Dec 23, 1739).

English painter and illustrator of Dutch origin. He was first instructed in drawing by his father, John Vanderbank the elder (d 1717), a tapestry-weaver of Soho, London. He worked at Kneller’s Academy from its foundation in 1711 but broke away in 1720 and with Louis Chéron set up a new school in St Martin’s Lane, London, at which a greater emphasis was placed on life drawing. He had begun as a portrait painter and in the 1720s attracted sitters who included Isaac Newton (1725; version, London, Royal Soc.), Martin Folkes (untraced; mezzotint by J. Faber, 1737) and Thomas Guy (London, Guy’s Hosp.). Royal commissions included George I (1726; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.) and Queen Caroline (1736; Goodwood House, W. Sussex). At that time he also did some decorative painting, executing designs on a staircase at 11 Bedford Row, London (c. 1720); this commission included an equestrian portrait of ...

Article

Shearer West

(b ?Yarmouth, 25 April ?1721; d London, Feb 6, 1786).

English draughtsman, illustrator and painter. In 1735 he was apprenticed to a goldsmith; he studied at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, London, where he was influenced by Gravelot. He worked briefly as a decorative painter in partnership with Francis Hayman, presenting topographical roundels of Christ’s Hospital, St Thomas’s Hospital and Greenwich Hospital to the Foundling Hospital (all before 1748; in situ).

Wale was among the most prolific book illustrators of the third quarter of the 18th century, producing illustrations for over 100 publications. The fact that he did not engrave his own designs may have contributed to the enormity of his output: he usually supplied only a pen-and-ink drawing, sometimes tinted, which would then be engraved; he could also be repetitive. Around 1751 he designed a series of prints of Vauxhall Gardens, which were etched and engraved by Thomas Bowles (b c. 1712) and Johann Sebastian Müller (...