1-20 of 28 results  for:

  • East Asian Art x
  • Buddhist Art x
  • Books, Manuscripts, and Illustration x
Clear all

Article

Masatomo Kawai

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (...

Article

Korean calligrapher, painter, scholar and poet. He was also a lay Buddhist. Born into a family related by marriage to the imperial household, from an early age he showed his talent for calligraphy, studying with Pak Che-ga. Kim had an extremely successful civil service career before being exiled in ...

Article

Helmut Brinker

Chinese Zen master and calligrapher, active in Japan. He was the first recognized Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) teacher to reach Japan. He became a major figure in the transmission of the doctrines and spirit of Rinzai (Chin. Linji) Zen and the introduction of Chinese Song-period (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He was one of the most important painters of the Edo period (1600–1868), creating hundreds of paintings and calligraphies that revolutionized Zenga (painting and calligraphy by Zen monks from the 17th century to the 20th; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vii)...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He entered the Shingon-sect temple Kansōji at the age of four or five, transferring to the Sōtō-sect Zen temple Chōgenji a few years later. Around the age of 16 he moved to the leading Sōtō temple in eastern Japan, Sōrinji. After completing his Zen training, perhaps in ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. Of later Japanese artists in the Zenga (‘Zen painting’; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vii)) tradition, he is perhaps the best-known in the Western world.

Born to a farming family, he became a monk at the age of ten at Seitaiji in Mino Province and at 19 began studies with the outstanding Zen teacher ...

Article

Guanxiu  

Joan Stanley-Baker

Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet and Buddhist monk. During the reign (ad 901–3) of the Tang emperor Zhaozong (reg ad 888–904), he visited Sichuan Province and was honoured by the King of Shu, who bestowed on him the title of Master. At that time, Daoism and Buddhism flourished in Sichuan, prompting many temple-building projects and giving an unprecedented impetus to the liturgical arts and figurative painting. Of the 50 or more painters recorded as then working in Sichuan, most were producing Daoist and Buddhist figure paintings....

Article

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese government official and calligrapher. Together with Emperor Saga and the Buddhist monk Kūkai, he is regarded as one of the Sanpitsu (Three Brushes) calligraphy masters of the early Heian period (794–1185) who played an important role in the introduction, diffusion and revered status of Chinese culture and calligraphy styles. He was born into an aristocratic family of government ministers, the son of either Tachibana no Irusue or Tachibana no Kiyotomo, and cousin of the emperor. He went to China in 804 and, to judge from a historical record, he was acquainted with Kūkai, who was in China at the same time. They both returned to Japan in 806. Hayanari rose only slowly in the imperial government, and in 842 he was banished to Izu Province (now part of Shizuoka Prefect.) for his alleged involvement in a dispute over imperial succession but died ...

Article

Huaisu  

Ho Chuan-Hsing

Chinese calligrapher and Buddhist monk. He left home to become a monk while still young, taking the monastic name Huaisu, over his family name, Qian. Early devoted to the art of cursive script (caoshu) calligraphy, he initially imitated the style of his step-brother ...

Article

Joseph D. Parker

Japanese Zen abbot and calligrapher. It is to Daitō Kokushi (‘national teacher Daitō’) that the abbots of virtually all modern Japanese Rinzai Zen temples trace their religious heritage, and he was one of Japan’s foremost monk–calligraphers. Daitō took monastic orders as a youth and at the age of about 21 became a disciple of ...

Article

Kōmyō  

Samuel C. Morse

Japanese empress, Buddhist patron and calligrapher. She was the consort of Shōmu, her half-brother and the 45th emperor of Japan (reg 724–49). Kōmyō was the daughter of Fujiwara no Fubito (659–720), a powerful aristocrat who was also the father of Shōmu’s mother, and Agata Inukai no Tachibana no Michiyo (...

Article

Kūkai  

Samuel C. Morse

Japanese monk and calligrapher. He introduced the Shingon sect of Esoteric Buddhism to Japan (see Japan, §II, 3) and is also known for his many important artistic and cultural achievements. Together with Saga and Tachibana no Hayanari, he was known as one of the ...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher. He became a major figure in the Ōbaku Zen lineage in Japan. Along with Ingen Ryūki and Mokuan Shōtō, he is extolled as one of the ‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’ (Jap. Ōbaku no sanpitsu), master Zen calligraphers (see also...

Article

Karen M. Gerhart

Japanese poet, calligrapher, potter and painter. Shortly after her birth, she was adopted by Ōtagaki Mitsuhisa who worked at Chion’in, an important Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple in Kyoto. In 1798 she was sent to serve at Kameoka Castle in Tanba, where she studied poetry, calligraphy and martial arts. She returned to Kyoto in ...

Article

Ryōkan  

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese Zen monk, calligrapher and poet. He became a monk at the age of 18 at the temple Kōshōji, Okayama Prefecture, but, being a wanderer for most of his life, never attained high monastic rank. He is known for his poetry in Japanese and Chinese and his individualistic, indeed idiosyncratic, swiftly brushed style of calligraphy and is one of the most respected calligraphers of the late Edo period, receiving more attention and study than his contemporaries ...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher, active in Japan. Along with his disciples Mokuan Shōtō and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, he was extolled as one of the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’), the three principal calligraphers of the Ōbaku Zen school. He was a leading southern Chinese Buddhist master who, not long after the end of the Ming period (...

Article

Saga  

Samuel C. Morse

Japanese emperor, poet, calligrapher and patron of the Shingon sect of Esoteric Buddhism. Along with Kūkai and Tachibana no Hayanari, he is regarded as one of the Sanpitsu (Three Brushes; master calligraphers) of the Heian period (ad 794–1185) (see Japan, §VII, 2, (ii)...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In ...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in ...

Article

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese Shinto–Shingon Buddhist priest, painter and calligrapher. Together with Konoe Nobutada and Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family, §1), he is known as one of the three Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei era’ (1624–44)). He began his religious training at the age of 17 at Mt Otoko, near Kyoto, at the Shinto–Shingon Buddhist sanctuary of Iwashimizu Hachimangu, of which he became abbot in ...