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Lewis Kachur

(b Argenteuil-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, May 13, 1882; d Paris, Aug 31, 1963).

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912. For a long time it was impossible to distinguish their respective contributions to Cubism, for example in the development of Collage, while Picasso’s fame and notoriety overshadowed the quiet life of Braque.

His family moved in 1890 to Le Havre, where his father had a painting and decorating business. In 1897 Braque entered the municipal art school, where he met and became friendly with Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy. He joined them in Paris at the turn of the century and, after a year of army service, settled in Montmartre in 1902. He began to visit the Musée du Louvre, where he encountered van Gogh’s work, and that October he began to study at the Académie Humbert, where his fellow students included Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. The following year he studied briefly with ...


(b Delfshaven, nr Rotterdam, Jan 26, 1877; d Monte Carlo, May 28, 1968).

French painter and printmaker of Dutch birth. He took evening classes in geometric drawing from 1892 to 1897 at the Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Rotterdam. In 1895 he began working intermittently for the newspaper Rotterdamsche Nieuwsblad, for which he made, among other things, a series of bright watercolour drawings of Rotterdam’s red-light district and illustrations of Queen Wilhelmina’s coronation. Van Dongen’s first paintings used dark tones in imitation of Rembrandt, who remained the most important model for his work; his later book on Rembrandt was, in fact, a projection of his own life. By the mid-1890s he was using more vivid contrasts of black and white, for example in Spotted Chimera (1895; priv. col., see Chaumeil, pl. 1), his palette soon becoming brighter and his line more animated. In Le Muet Windmill (1896; priv. col., see Chaumeil, pl. 7), a red ochre monochrome painting, he successfully enlivened the colour by means of broad, energetic brushstrokes....


Dora Pérez-Tibi

(b Le Havre, June 3, 1877; d Forcalquier, Basses-Alpes, March 23, 1953).

French painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing at evening classes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre,given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier (?1824–98). He discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.) was ‘a revelation and certainly one of the most violent impressions’ of his life (Lassaigne, Eng. trans., p. 16). In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947 (e.g. 1927; Nice, Mus. Masséna). His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as ...


British, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Blackburn (Lancashire); died May 1960.

Painter, engraver.

Clive Gardiner studied at the Slade School of Art (1909-1912) and the Royal Academy Schools (1913-1914). He was greatly influenced by Fauvism and a certain method of structuring the canvas in the 1920s. He then returned to figuration. He designed posters for the Underground Group and London Transport ...


Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Pardubice.

Painter, illustrator, engraver.

Jaroslav Grus studied with H. Schwaigra at the academy of arts in Prague. A figurative painter influenced by the Fauvist and Expressionist movements in Central Europe, he also executed engravings and illustrated books. He participated in numerous exhibitions of Czech painting....


Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Germany.

Born 1 September 1938, in Copenhagen.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, performance artist, environmental artist. Landscapes.


Fluxus, Nouveaux Fauves.

Per Kirkeby took a doctorate in geology and has participated in several scientific expeditions to Greenland, central America, central Asia and Ireland. In the 1960s, he was a member of the experimental art school in Copenhagen, which was close to the Fluxus group, and, in ...


Czech, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany, naturalised German.

Born 1941, in Liberec (Bohemia), Czech Republic.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, watercolourist.

New Fauves.

Markus Lüpertz’s family left what was then Czechoslovakia and went to live in the Rhineland of Germany while he was still a child. He was the pupil of Laurens Goossens at the school of applied arts in Krefeld from 1956. Having worked for a year as part of a road-building gang, he returned to his education by enrolling at the national academy of fine arts in Düsseldorf in 1961. From 1962, the year in which he settled in Berlin, and perhaps in reaction to American artistic expansionism, he began to take a close interest in the history of European art, from Greek and Roman times up to, and in particular, the work of Picasso, in whose work he discerned a Dionysiac celebration. By 1964, he was in Berlin and, with K. H. Hödicke, Bernd Kökerling, and Lampertz Maria Wintersberger, he helped to establish the self-managed gallery ...


French, 20th century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born 31 August 1916, in Pessac (Gironde); died 1995.

Painter, engraver, designer.

In his youth, Lyr met, through his father, the Fauvist painters from Brabant. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, where he became a professor and later the director. He also ran the school of arts in Ixelles ...


French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 December 1869, in Le Cateau-Cambrésis (Nord); died 3 November 1954, in Nice.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, illustrator, theorist. Artists’ books.


Henri Matisse was born to parents who owned a grocery shop in Bohain, a small town in northern France. After his schooling in St Quentin, he began his law studies in Paris in 1887–1888. In 1889, he returned to St Quentin, where he worked as a clerk in a law firm but was soon taken ill. It was during his lengthy convalescence that he decided to turn to painting. In 1891, he returned to Paris and enrolled at the Académie Julian, where he studied under the painter William Bouguereau. In 1893, Matisse left the Académie and joined Albert Marquet, Georges Rouault, Charles Camoin, and Henri Manguin at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied with Gustave Moreau. From 1895, he lived at 19 Quai St Michel in Paris, an address that he kept for the rest of his life....


Nicholas Watkins

(Emile Benoît )

(b Le Cateau-Cambrésis [now Le Cateau], nr Cambrai, Picardy, Dec 31, 1869; d Nice, Nov 3, 1954).

French painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, designer and writer. He came to art comparatively late in life and made his reputation as the principal protagonist of Fauvism, the first avant-garde movement at the turn of the century. He went on to develop a monumental decorative art, which was innovative both in its treatment of the human figure and in the constructive and expressive role accorded to colour. His long career culminated in a highly original series of works made of paper cut-outs, which confirmed his reputation, with Picasso, as one of the major artists of the 20th century.

Matisse was born in his grandparents’ home and grew up in the neighbouring village of Bohain-en-Vermandois, where his father’s general store had developed into a grain business. He worked first as a solicitor’s clerk in the local town of Saint-Quentin before taking a degree in law in Paris from October 1887 to August 1889, without apparently showing the slightest interest in art; on returning home he resumed work as a solicitor’s clerk. Bored by the routine of office life, he attended drawing classes at the Ecole Quentin Latour before going to work....


Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 April 1867, in St Joost-ten-Node; died 1931, in Auderghem.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, still-lifes.

Brabant Fauvism.

After attending the drawing school in St-Joost-ten-Node, Auguste Charles Louis Oleffe received further artistic training in Nieuport, painting the sea and fishermen. His friends of the Brabant School included Rik Wouters, a leading exponent of Fauvism. Oleffe exhibited at the contemporary art salon in Antwerp and the Salon de la Libre Estétique in Brussels, as well as teaching at the Nationaal Hoger Instituut voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp. He looked to Monet for inspiration, and his work is related to the Informel group of Brabant Fauvism....


German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 5 October 1939, in Dresden, Germany.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor, engraver, performance artist, filmmaker, writer, musician.

New Fauves.

A. R. Penck produced his first paintings (landscapes and portraits) at the age of ten and subsequently studied commercial art in 1955. He was self-taught, practised different professions, and pursued many activities, such as music, poetry, and editing scientific, political, and aesthetic texts. He was a pupil of the painter Jürgen Böttcher-Strawalde and collaborated with him on joint works. He worked with a great many other artists from the West, such as Jörg Immendorf and Georg Baselitz, whom he met in 1961 in the former West Berlin. In 1980, he decided to live in the West, near Cologne; then he settled first in England and then in Ireland. In 1987, he became a teacher at the school of fine art in Düsseldorf. He recorded records with the painters Martin Kippenberger and Immendorf. During his career as an artist, he changed his identity several times: in 1969 to ‘Penck’, in 1973 to ‘Mike Hammer’, in 1974 to ‘TM’, and in 1976 to ‘Y’. He lives and works in Dublin....


Lynn Boyer Ferrillo

(b Roanne, nr Lyon, Nov 8, 1876; d Roanne, March 7, 1960).

French painter and printmaker. At 19 he undertook training in architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, but he soon decided to become a painter. He studied for two years (c. 1895–6) with Tony Tollet (1857–after 1935), a student of Alexandre Cabanel, whose essentially academic realist style gave him a sound foundation in draughtsmanship. The museum and art life of Lyon likewise enriched his early years. He moved to Paris in late 1897 or early 1898 to study at the Académie Julian under the history painter Jean-Paul Laurens. Puy was dissatisfied, however, with the studio conditions, with the lack of freedom offered to students and with Laurens’s reliance on bitumen and a dark palette. After a summer in Brittany he decided instead to study with Eugène Carrière, in whose studio he found more openness and discussion among the students. There he met Henri Matisse, André Derain and Pierre Laprade....


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in St Joost-ten-Node; died 1947, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Figures, portraits, landscapes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Ramah was a student at the school of fine art in St Joost-ten-Node, and then at the academy in Brussels. He was a member of ...


Danielle Molinari


(b Paris, May 27, 1871; d Paris, Feb 13, 1958).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. Although he first came to prominence with works displayed in 1905 at the Salon d’Automne in Paris, in the company of paintings by Henri Matisse and other initiators of Fauvism, he established a highly personal and emotive style. His technique and palette were also highly personal, and they ranged from watercolour blues to a rich, thick application of materials. These demonstrate, in their very complexity, not only originality but also the craft of the artist always in search of a greater form of expression. Even though he never stopped observing mankind, his deep religious feeling allowed him to imbue his work with great spirituality.

Rouault was born to a humble family during the brief period of the Paris Commune. Through his maternal grandfather, Alexandre Champdavoine, an unassuming post office employee, he discovered artists such as Courbet, Manet and Honoré Daumier at an early age. Having shown a lively interest in drawing at school, at the age of 14 Rouault became a glazier’s apprentice with ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1879, in Brussels; died January 1957, in Brussels.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Scenes with figures, mythological subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, landscapes. Designs for tapestries.

Brabant Fauvism.

Tytgat worked in his father's lithographic studio as a child. In 1897, he moved on to attend evening classes at the academy in Brussels. He spent World War I in London, returning afterwards to settle in Woluwe-St-Lambert in 1924. He was associated generally with the informal grouping of the Brabant Fauves....


Lynn Boyer Ferrillo

(b Dieppe, Aug 8, 1869; d ?Paris, Jan 2, 1952).

French painter, printmaker and stage designer. He spent much of his youth in Versailles, moving in 1887 to Paris, where he studied under Gustave Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and under Jules Dupré at the Académie Julian. There he met Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, Edouard Vuillard and Albert André. With a keen interest in both artistic precedents and contemporary trends, he absorbed in the mid-1890s the chief tenets of Impressionism, van Gogh’s work and Pointillism before slowly developing his own style. In 1895 he collaborated with Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and André on the set of Aurélien-François Lugné-Poë’s play Chariot de terre cuite, performed at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre, Paris. Under Toulouse-Lautrec’s influence, his own works darkened both in colour and sentiment, for example Chez Maxim’s (1895; Geneva, Petit Pal.), in which he depicted two gaunt, severe-looking women seated in a murky café. By 1896 he painted contemporary French life with an overall sunnier, more optimistic air, as in ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active in the Balearic Islands.

Born 16 February 1886, in Roulers; died 10 May 1957, in Ukkel.

Painter, engraver. Figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes, flowers.

Brabant Fauvism.

Médard Verburgh was a pupil at the fine arts academy in Roulers and later the Brussels academy. To earn his living, he worked as a decorator in Italy and the USA and lived in Majorca for around 20 years. While working as a painter, he produced plans for various buildings, especially villas. In 1929, he was made a Chevalier of the Ordre de la Couronne, in 1937 a Chevalier of the Ordre de Léopold and in 1954 an Officer of the l'Ordre de la Couronne....


Jean Selz

(b Paris, April 5, 1876; d Rueil-la-Gadelière, Eure-et-Loir, Oct 7, 1958).

French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and writer. His nature, character, tastes and way of life were in perfect harmony with the freedom, daring and violence of his painting. He was brought up in a musical environment: his father, of Flemish origin, was a violin teacher and his mother, from Lorraine, was a piano teacher. He studied music himself to quite a high standard and later played the double-bass (and sometimes the bass drum, a source of considerable pleasure) in his regimental band. His family had come to live at Le Vésinet near Paris, and he spent his childhood both there and later at Chatou on the Seine. From 1892 he began to take an interest in painting, though he worked as a mechanic and became a racing cyclist.

After his first marriage (to Suzanne Berly) Vlaminck gave up cycling and returned to music. He gave violin lessons and played the violin in popular orchestras and café-concerts in Paris. He also made his début as a journalist in the late 19th century and wrote articles for anarchist papers such as ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 August 1882, in Mechelen; died 11 July 1916, in Amsterdam.

Painter, pastellist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Portraits, figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Rik Wouters started working wood from a very early age, following the example of his artisan father. He studied initially at the academy in Mechelen before enrolling at the academy in Brussels and studying sculpture until the age of 28 under Charles van der Stappen and J. Dillens. He settled in Boitsfort, a suburb of Greater Brussels, from 1905 to 1908. In 1909 he met the French painter Simon Lévy, who briefed him on what was happening in the art world generally. He was put under contract to the art dealer and couturier Georges Giroux. Wouters was conscripted for military service at the outbreak of World War I and his unit was assigned to Zeist. While there, he was diagnosed with a serious brain condition. He did not survive the ensuing operation and died at the age of 34. As a sculptor he had had little time to develop; as a painter, he had had effectively no more than two years....