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Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 5 August 1926, in Rome.


Cavaliere was a confirmed Expressionist. His work took a somewhat fantastical turn, beginning in 1959. Joining the Surrealist current, he used materials such as glass, mirrors, porcelain and mobile, even luminous elements, inside structures. After ...



Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Painter, draughtsman.

Julio was also a poet, under the pseudonym of Saul Dia, and introduced Expressionism and Surrealism to Portugal. He collaborated on the review Presença. His Expressionism was influenced by Grosz before becoming truly personal, and he painted mainly figures, whose features he deformed. During the 1920s, he became an adherent of Surrealism and subsequently produced a large number of drawings, including the series ...


Whitney Chadwick

(b Balagne, Jan 4, 1896; d Paris, Oct 28, 1987).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, and stage designer. His work played an important role in the development of both Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism, although his independence, iconoclasm, and abrupt stylistic transitions make him difficult to classify. Masson was admitted to the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels at the age of 11. Through his teacher Constant Montald, he met the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren (1855–1916), who persuaded Masson’s parents to send him to Paris for further training. Masson joined the French infantry in 1915 and fought in the battles of the Somme; he was gravely wounded, and his wartime experiences engendered in him a profound philosophy about human destiny and stimulated his search for a personal imagery of generation, eclosion, and metamorphosis.

Masson’s early works, particularly the paintings of 1922 and 1923 on a forest theme (e.g. Forest, 1923; see Leiris and Limbour, p. 93), reflected the influence of André Derain, but by late ...


Austrian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Vienna.


Thomas Reinhold's style evolved from Abstract Expressionism, which he combines with automatism and emotion. He fills his palette with broken colours. He took part in collective exhibitions at the Neue Galerie, Graz (1981), in Trieste (...


Robert Hoozee


(b Ghent, April 3, 1883; d Ghent, Sept 23, 1939).

Belgian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Ghent (1891–1903) and grew up in an intellectual environment. Like his friend Gustave De Smet, with whom he worked closely, almost until the end of his life, he began his painting career with a compromise between Symbolism and Impressionism, working sometimes in Ghent, sometimes near the artists’ colony at Laethem-Saint-Martin. He painted primarily portraits, interiors and landscapes. During World War I he moved to the Netherlands and stayed there with De Smet and other Flemish artists in Amsterdam and Blaricum successively. In the Netherlands, he became acquainted with Dutch painters including Leo Gestel and the French émigré, Henri Le Fauconnier. Under the influence of Fauvism, Cubism, German Expressionism and Futurism, Van den Berghe painted a series of important canvases, mostly figure compositions and portraits, in which one can note the gradual development of a cubistic-expressionistic formal language. He also made woodcuts such as ...