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Colin Rhodes

(b Berlin, Oct 5, 1887; d Bad Liebenzell, nr Stuttgart, Nov 14, 1975).

German painter. He studied under Henry Van de Velde at the School of the Fine Arts and Arts and Crafts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony (later the Bauhaus, Weimar) (1906–7), and under Franz von Stuck at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (1909–10). He worked under Adolf Hölzel at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Stuttgart from 1912, and by 1918 he had produced his first non-objective works under the influence of the latter. Although primarily an abstract painter he was briefly involved with Magic Realism in the 1920s. He devised a type of colour abstraction, which he called ‘Absolute Painting’, and in 1930 he founded a ‘Seminar for Absolute Painting’ at the Volkshochschule in Stuttgart. Works such as Painting XII (1949; Berlin, Alte N.G.) relied heavily on a body of theory derived mainly from Hölzel and the colour theories of Goethe.

L. Langenfeld...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in England.

Born 1904, in Purkersdorf (Vienna).

Painter, draughtsman, decorative designer.

George Adams-Teltscher studied at the school of decorative arts in Vienna and then at the Bauhaus in Dessau from 1921 to 1923. Probably influenced by Oskar Schlemmer, he became a theatre decorator in Vienna in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in America.

Born 1909, in Dessau.

Painter.

Heinz Allner trained at the Bauhaus between 1927 and 1930, notably under Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky. He settled for a time in Paris in 1933, where he worked in graphic art and typography, disciplines he had acquired at the Bauhaus. He remained in Paris until ...

Article

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Tuchow, Poland; died 18 June 1992.

Painter.

After receiving a classical grounding in the arts, Mordecai Ardon left Poland and studied at the Bauhaus from 1920 to 1925, working under the direction of Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. He went on to study at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He then taught at the art school opened in Berlin by Johannes Itten. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Ardon sought refuge in Palestine where, in 1935, he was appointed to a teaching post at the Bezalel college of art in Jerusalem (of which he was to become the principal in 1940) and served as an adviser on the arts to the ministry of education and culture. As such, he played a determining role in the training of young Israeli artists....

Article

[Bronstein, Max]

(b Tuchów, Poland, July 13, 1896; d Jerusalem, June 18, 1992).

Israeli painter of Polish birth. As a young boy he greatly admired El Greco, Goya and Rembrandt. From 1920 to 1925 he studied at the Bauhaus, Weimar, under Klee, Kandinsky, Johannes Itten and Lyonel Feininger and the following year studied painting techniques at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under Max Doerner. During the 1920s he changed his name from Max Bronstein to Mordecai Ardon. He taught at the Kunstschule Itten in Berlin from 1929 to 1933, when Nazi persecution forced him to flee to Jerusalem. Though he had been an active Communist in Germany, in Jerusalem he soon found a great affinity with Jewish religion and culture. In 1935 he was made a professor at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, and was its Director from 1940 to 1952.

Ardon’s early paintings show the influence of Expressionism, as in Seated Woman in a Straw Chair...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Elbing (now Elblag, Poland).

Painter, architect.

Alfred Arndt was mainly active at the Bauhaus, where he studied architecture and mural painting before becoming a teacher of interior design in 1929. He lost his construction rights in 1933 during the Third Reich, but was later appointed architect of public works in Jena in ...

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1908, in Vilnius; died 1995, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Theatre decoration.

Moses Bagel studied with Klee and Kandinsky at the Bauhaus around 1927. He created sets for the Yiddish theatre in Paris.

Nieszawer, Nadine/Boyé, Marie...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1924, in Milan; died 16 June 2003, in Vergiate, near Varese.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, illustrator.

Nuclear Movement, International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus.

After studying at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera from 1945 to 1948, and having gained a law degree, Baj devoted himself to art from 1950. The following year he began a career that has produced a variety of artistic creations always characterised by his fighting spirit, and has embraced a raft of different groups. He started by establishing the ...

Article

Barbara Barsch

[Koehler, Otto]

(b Blumenau, Brazil, Feb 6, 1904; d 1995).

German sculptor . He studied at the Bauhaus in Weimar under László Moholy-Nagy and Oskar Schlemmer from 1923 to 1924; he emigrated to Czechoslovakia in 1935, where he was co-founder and director of the Oskar-Kokoschka-Bund. He lived in London from 1939 to 1947 and then returned to Berlin, where he taught at the Hochschule für Bildende und Angewandte Kunst (1950–58). In East Germany Balden was seen as developing a modern idiom within the context of naturalism, somewhat in the manner of Henry Moore. Even his early works, such as Beaten Jew (1943) and Reminder (1946; both Berlin, Staatl. Museen, Neue N.G.), show his interest in expressive form and his liking for sculpture ‘containing space’. He always created socially-orientated works based on his own beliefs about the independence of the individual, as in the Karl Liebknecht monument (1968) in the Marktplatz, Luckau.

R. Hoffmann: Theo Balden...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Neuss.

Potter.

Barthelmess was a student at the Bauhaus from 1920 to 1923 and he subsequently ran a pottery studio there. From 1927 he worked as an architectural ceramicist and potter in Düsseldorf where he taught at the Academy from ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Salzburg; died 1955, in Linz.

Draughtsman, engraver.

Baschant studied in Essen and Frankfurt am Main and then at the Bauhaus, from 1921 to 1924, in the engraving studio. He subsequently travelled and painted. He studied the art of book illustration in Leipzig in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Velbert (Rhineland); died 1986, in Wuppertal.

Painter, engraver, sculptor, watercolourist, photographer.

From 1929 to 1931, Batz studied sculpture at the Bauhaus School (school of design founded by Walter Gropius). He also studied painting under Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Staying for a time in France and Switzerland, from ...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

Kathleen James-Chakraborty

After the closure in 1933 of the Bauhaus in Berlin, its staff and students dispersed. Many found their way to the USA, where they became highly influential teachers as well as artists and architects. The pedagogical methods developed at the school, particularly in the preliminary course, became commonplace in all levels of art education, as the former centrality in America of life drawing to instruction in the visual arts was now challenged by experimentation with abstract principles of composition and the qualities of individual materials.

Josef and Anni Albers family were the first Bauhäusler to immigrate to the USA. They arrived in 1933 and quickly took up positions at Black Mountain College, NC. In 1950 Josef became chair of the department of design at Yale University, New Haven, CT, from which he retired in 1958. His increasingly rigorous investigations into geometry and colour culminated in a series of paintings entitled ...

Article

Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1909, in Stuttgart.

Photographer.

From 1929 to 1931, Hannes Beckmann was a student on the photography course at the Bauhaus and of Klee and Kandinsky. After living in Prague, he settled in New York, where he became director of the photography department at the Guggenheim Museum, a professor of colour and design at the Cooper School of Architecture and then an art critic at Yale University. He was a theorist of industrial aesthetics....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, female.

Active in Germany.

Born 1898, in Vörösmart; died 1945.

Draughtswoman.

Otti Berger studied at the Bauhaus from 1927 until 1933, then turned temporarily to weaving and designed a large number of fabrics in Berlin for the Netherlands and England. She died in a concentration camp....

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 24 December 1909, in Copenhagen; died 13 September 1957, in Halmstad.

Painter.

Bjerke Petersen studied under Klee and Kandinsky at the Bauhaus in Dessau in or around 1926. On his return to Denmark, he was keen to promote the concepts and work of non-figurative artists. Accordingly, he edited the periodical ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in Constance.

Born 1907, in Gelsenkirchen.

Architect.

Hermann Blomeier followed courses under Kandinsky and Klee at the Bauhaus from 1930 to 1932.