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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Cincinnati.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, assemblage artist, happenings artist, draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jim Dine spent his childhood in his father’s painting and plumbing tool shop. He studied at the University of Cincinnati and then at Ohio University, leaving with a Bachelor of Arts in 1957. He also followed courses at Boston Museum School. In 1958 he settled in New York, participating in the birth of Pop Art and, more especially, Happening Art, participating in avant-garde group exhibitions. However, this allegiance to Pop Art has to be moderated to some extent; even though historically he lived this experience, he always added a somewhat poetic, sentimental nuance and retained an attachment to pictorial problems, something that brought him closer to another artist who found himself isolated during this period: Cy Twombly....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1937, in Nashville (Tennessee).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, performance artist, environmental artist, installation artist, film maker.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Born Charles Rogers Grooms, the red-headed Red Grooms studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955...

Article

Barbara Lange

revised by Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1931.

Performance artist, sculptor of assemblages, painter (mixed media).

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

Geoffrey Hendricks joined Fluxus in 1966. In 1971, together with Bici Forbes Hendricks and George Maciunas, he created Flux Divorce, the movement's principal manifestation. He was also involved in several avant-garde festivals and, in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 23 April 1892, in Frankenau; died 20 April 1974, in Muralto, Switzerland.

Performance artist, poet, writer, painter.

Dada. Cabaret Voltaire.

As a medical student in Munich in 1912, Huelsenbeck met the poet and actor Hugo Ball. That winter he went to study philosophy at the Sorbonne and, as the Paris correspondent, contributed to Ball and Hans Leybold’s short-lived leftist periodical, ...

Article

Czechoslovak, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Plzen.

Painter, draughtsman, performance artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

Between 1948 and 1956, Milan Knizak studied at the Mariánské Lázne school of music, at the academy of fine arts, and at the faculty of mathematics and physics in Prague. He taught at several American universities and art colleges in Germany and Austria. He was appointed rector of the academy of fine arts in Prague in ...

Article

Croat, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in Petrinja.

Sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist, performance artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Conceptual Art.

Gorgona Group.

Ivan Kozaric trained at the school of fine art in Zagreb and after an initial stay in Paris where he frequently returned, he started producing work in ...

Article

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1883; d Paris, June 8, 1956).

French painter, stage designer and illustrator. After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire (1845–1928), in 1903–4 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia. In 1907 she first exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants, met Picasso at Clovis Sagot’s gallery and through Picasso was introduced to the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Laurencin and Apollinaire were soon on intimate terms, their relationship lasting until 1912.

Laurencin became a regular associate of the painters and poets associated with the Bateau-Lavoir, who included Picasso, Braque, Gris, Max Jacob and André Salmon. She was present at the banquet given by Picasso in honour of Henri Rousseau in 1908 and produced the first version of Apollinaire and his Friends (1908; Baltimore, MD, Mus. A.) in a highly simplified style, in which she pictured herself and the poet with Picasso and his companion Fernande Olivier. Both this and a larger version with additional figures (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 June 1936, in Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Painter, draughtsman, poet, sculptor, assemblage artist, installation artist, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Visual Poetry.

Surrealist group.

At the age of 15, Jean-Jacques Lebel, whose father was an art specialist, was exchanging letters with André Breton and mixing with the Surrealists (he was later excluded, with Alain Jouffroy, in ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 1929, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, mixed media, watercolourist, lithographer, draughtsman, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

The son of a Swedish consular official, Claes Oldenburg arrived in the United States with his family in 1929. From 1946 to 1950, he studied art and literature at Yale. After working as a reporter and illustrator, he abandoned journalism in 1952 and attended the Art Institute in Chicago until 1954, exhibiting thereafter in local galleries. In 1956, he settled in New York, where he survived on odd jobs, through which he became familiar with the New York street scene. He met Allan Kaprow, the American artist, art theorist, and main creator of ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 1933, in Tokyo.

Painter, sculptor, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

After settling in New York, Yoko Ono initially took an active role in the Fluxus group, organising concerts (particularly of La Monte Young) and putting up artists from the group (George Brecht, Allan Kaprow, George Segal). After marrying the singer John Lennon of the Beatles, she broke off from her own activities as an artist and took part in demonstrations for peace and for the emancipation of women. Following the assassination of her husband, she returned to her work as an artist....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 20 April 1894, in Modena; died 1956, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, scenographer. Figures, portraits, landscapes, interiors, still-lifes. Stage costumes and sets, marionettes, wall decorations, furniture.

Futurism, Dadaism.

Groups: Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création, Group 40.

Enrico Prampolini studied briefly with Diulio Cambellotti at the Accademia di Belle Arti in, Rome, but was expelled in 1913. He wrote his own manifesto, ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 22 October 1925, in Port Arthur, Texas; died 12 May 2008, in Captiva Island, Florida.

Painter (mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor of assemblages, engraver, lithographer, screen printer, installation artist, performance artist. Stage sets.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus, Citationism, Copy Art.

Experiments in Art and Technology group...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1948.

Born 14 September 1936, in Kastoria.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, happenings artist, sculptor of assemblages, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Dadaism.

In 1948 at the age of 12, Samaras arrived in the USA with his family. He became acquainted with Allan Kaprow and George Segal, a major factor in his development, at Rutgers University between ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Born 1932, in Osaka.

Painter, draughtswoman, installation artist, performance artist. Wall decorations.

Neo-Dadaism.

Groups: Zero, Gutai.

After graduating from art college in Kyoto, Atsuko Tanaka went on to study under the direction of Jiro Yoshihara. Already a member of the Zero...

Article

Hans-Peter Wittwer

(b Lucerne, Aug 11, 1930; d Berlin, Nov 9, 1985).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and stage designer. He met Serge Stauffer (b 1930) in 1946, with whom he shared an admiration for Dada and Surrealism, and in particular for Hans Arp and Marcel Duchamp. In 1947 they started to exchange letters (some of which survive; see 1985 exh. cat.). Thomkins studied under Max von Moos (b 1903) at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Lucerne (1947–9), although he did not formally enrol at the college. He then attended the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Paris (1950–51). In 1952 he settled in Rheydt, near Lucerne, where he created the autobiographical figure Schwebsel, analogous to Max Ernst’s Lop-Lop bird.

In 1954 Thomkins moved to Essen. He produced the first Vexierklischees (painted photographs) in 1955 (e.g. Ornamental Asparagus is Re-potted Here, 1956; The Hague, Gemeentemus.) and began to experiment with Lackskins, produced by letting oil paint drip on to a water surface and using paper to pick up the coloured paint as it spread and mixed with the water. In these works he was experimenting with the interplay between manipulation and chance, which he had observed in the work of the Surrealists. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1955 also active in France and in Spain.

Born 14 October 1932, in Leverkusen; died 3 April 1998, in Berlin.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, performance artist, installation artist, video artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus, Affichisme.

Labor Group...