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In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Konjit Seyoum

(b Addis Ababa, 1949).

Ethiopian painter active in Switzerland. He graduated from the Addis Ababa School of Fine Arts in 1971, comparing Byzantine and Ethiopian church paintings. He earned his BA (1972–6) at the Art Academy of Frankfurt am Main and moved to Switzerland in 1976, where he became a member of the Society of Swiss Painters, Sculptors and Architects (GSMBA). In 1983 he studied contemporary African-American art in Washington, DC. His work reflect his interest in abstraction, mural painting and magic scrolls as well as the influence of Gebre Krestos Desta and Skunder. Inspired by music, deep emotions, his surroundings and current events, his mostly acrylic paintings deal with social and political issues. His canvases are immensely rich in colour, filled with lines, rows of dots, circles, sparkling bubbles, magic scrolls, masks, birds, animals and rootlike creatures (e.g. Roots, 1996). Often Hiwet divides a painting with a crosslike form to create four distinct spaces, each with its own character and intensity but at the same time joined in one unique work forming a central image. He has exhibited in Ethiopia, Switzerland, Germany, France, the UK, Sweden and the USA....

Article

Evita Arapoglou

(b Ayvalık, Turkey, Nov 8, 1895; d Athens, July 13, 1965).

Greek painter, printmaker, hagiographer, and writer. An ardent believer in the Byzantine and post-Byzantine tradition, he left Ayvalık in 1913 to study painting at the School of Fine Arts in Athens. His studies were interrupted by World War I, during which he travelled to Paris with Spyros Papaloukas; he returned to Ayvalık in 1919, but after the Greco-Turkish War of 1922 he settled in Athens, where he spent the rest of his life. The Asia Minor disaster had a profound impact on his development in that he devoted himself to Byzantine iconography as, in his view, the genuine expression of the Greek spirit.

Working consistently throughout his life as a painter and writer, from 1930 he based his themes almost exclusively on Greek traditions, using an unpretentiously simple and direct language in both media. His work included small panel paintings (mainly icons and portraits), book illustrations, miniatures, drawings for mosaics and wood sculptures, lithographs, woodcuts, and frescoes in Greek Orthodox churches, for example, for St George in Kypseli, Athens (...