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Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active in Florence.

Sculptor, medallist.

Cited by Zani. Alberghetti would appear to come from a well-known family of artists of the same name who worked from the Renaissance to the end of the 18th century as both casters and sculptors in Ferrara, Florence and Venice (where several were in charge of casting operations at the Artillery)....

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Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....

Article

An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...

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Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...

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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476), Chancellor under Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza (reg 1466–76), added to the family’s wealth. His grandson Francesco Archinto (d 1551), a jurist, was the favoured commissary of Louis XII in the area of Chiavenna; a portrait of him, preserved by the family, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Francesco’s cousin Filippo Archinto (1500–58) was appointed Senator by Duke Francesco Maria Sforza and in 1530 represented Milan at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V in Bologna. Filippo held various Imperial posts, including that of Ambassador to Rome, where Pope Paul III ordained him Bishop. In 1566 the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Milan, in which capacity his portrait (...

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Balbi  

Lorenza Rossi

Italian family of patrons and collectors. Their residence in the Piazza del Guastato, Genoa, is documented from 1547. With the collaboration of the Genoese comune they made the road (originally the Strada Nuovissima, now the Via Balbi) linking the Piazza del Guastato with the Porta di S Tomaso and were responsible for commissioning many buildings along it. Niccolò Balbi (d c. 1549), a silk merchant, made the family fortune and had four sons: Giovanni Francesco Balbi (d c. 1593), Pantaleo Balbi, Giovanni Girolamo Balbi and Bartolomeo Balbi. The third, Giovanni Girolamo, almost certainly lived in Antwerp, and his collection contained many works by Flemish artists and the works of such Genoese painters as Sinibaldo Scorza, Domenico Fiasella, Giovanni Battista Carlone (i) and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. The youngest son, Bartolomeo, also lived in Antwerp, where it is thought that he started his collection of paintings. His son, ...

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Deborah Howard

Italian family of patrons. They were endowed with intelligence and artistic gifts, as well as wealth and influence, and they included some of the most eminent humanist scholars of the 15th century, including Francesco di Candiano Barbaro (c. 1395–1454), a Latin and Greek scholar, and Ermolao Barbaro (1453–97), the author of important commentaries on Aristotle, later edited by (1) Daniele Barbaro. The family’s principal palace on the Grand Canal, Venice, has remained one of the least altered of the city’s Gothic palaces, apart from the enlargements (1694–8) of Antonio Gaspari (1670–1730). From 1534 onwards, Fra Zuanne Barbaro was one of the two friars who took special responsibility for the rebuilding of S Francesco della Vigna in Venice to the design of Jacopo Sansovino. His brother Francesco Barbaro was the first Venetian noble to purchase one of the family chapels in the new church. The Barbaro family owned huge estates in the Veneto above Treviso. It was here in the 1550s that ...

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons. They are documented from the early 1200s in Verona, where their rise in fortune was related to their support of the della Scala (or Scaligeri) family (reg 1259–1387). In 1336 Francesco Bevilacqua (1304–68) received a gift of land near Montagnana for his services; he built a castle there and the settlement that grew up around it is still known as Bevilacqua. In 1381 his son Guglielmo Bevilacqua (1334–97) sought refuge with Gian Galeazzo Visconti, later 1st Duke of Milan, who subsequently became ruler of Verona (reg 1387–1402). The Bevilacqua family thus regained possession of its lands but following Visconti’s death allied itself with Venice, which assumed control of Verona in 1516. At the splendid Palazzo Bevilacqua (1530), on the Corso Cavour, Verona, redeveloped by Michele Sanmicheli for Antonio Bevilacqua and his brother Gregorio, the architect took his inspiration from the nearby Roman gate, the Porta dei Borsari, to create one of his most successful works. The building has a Mannerist façade exhibiting a complex interplay of decorative features. The Verona family later also included Count ...

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons. Pietro Boncompagni (d 1404), a reader in civil law from 1378 to 1391, was buried in a tomb in S Martino, Bologna, where a Boncompagni family chapel, outstanding for its works of art, was completed in 1534. Its richly carved decoration is attributed to Amico Aspertini, and it features an Adoration of the Magi (1532) by Girolamo da Carpi on the wooden altar (attrib. Bartolomeo Ramenghi Bagnacavallo I). A great-grandson of Pietro Boncompagni, Cristoforo Boncompagni (1470–1546) was a draper and financier. He built a palazzo (1538–45) near the cathedral of S Pietro; its decorations were completed by his sons after his death. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola may have contributed to this elegant and dignified structure. Restored in 1845, the palazzo, now called Palazzo Benelli, stands at Via del Monte 8. Interior restoration work began in 1980.

Cristoforo Boncompagni’s ten children included a son Ugo Boncompagni, who became ...

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Janet Southorn

Italian family of patrons, merchants and statesmen. From the 14th century the family was a powerful force in the political and economic life of Florence. A focus for their patronage was the family chapel in the church of Santo Spirito, Florence, which contains the sarcophagus (1458) of Neri di Gino Capponi (1388–1457) by Bernardo Rossellino. In 1521 Ludovico Capponi (d 1534), having pursued a banking career in Rome, returned to Florence and in 1525 bought the Annunziata Chapel (attributed to Brunelleschi) in the church of S Felicità. For it he commissioned from Jacopo da Pontormo, assisted by his pupil Bronzino, decorations (1525–8) that included an altarpiece of the Lamentation (in situ), which has subsequently been regarded as both Pontormo’s masterpiece and a key work of Mannerism. Bronzino later executed a portrait (c. 1550; New York, Frick) of Ludovico’s son, also named Ludovico Capponi (...

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Douglas Lewis and William L. Barcham

[Corner]

Italian family of nobles and patrons. Among the richest, most powerful and oldest of Venetian families, the Cornaro boasted four doges among its members, the first of whom was (1) Marco Cornaro. The best-known member of the family is (2) Caterina Cornaro, the dispossessed Queen of Cyprus; her knighted brother Giorgio Cornaro (1447–1527), a hero of the Wars of the League of Cambrai, established three of his sons as heads of independent branches: the Cornaro della Regina, named for their inheritance of the Queen’s great Gothic palace (c. 1450–80; destr. 1723; rebuilt 1723–c. 1730) in the parish of San Cassiano; the Cornaro di Ca’ Grande, whose palace (begun 1545) at San Maurizio was designed by Jacopo Sansovino; and the Cornaro di San Polo, whose palace (c. 1550) was by Michele Sanmicheli (see Sanmicheli [Sammicheli; Sanmichele; da San Michiel] (da Verona), Michele, §1, (ii), (a)...

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Deborah Howard

In 

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Mario Buhagiar

Maltese family of painters. Stefano Erardi (b 1630; d 1716) was of French extraction and would seem to have been trained in the workshop of a Mannerist artist, though much of his apprenticeship probably consisted of copying paintings in Maltese collections and studying prints after works by famous artists. This may account for his eclecticism, but it would be wrong to dismiss him as a plagiarist. His best works reveal him to have been an excellent draughtsman with a good sense of colour, who never completely renounced his Mannerist formation. His contacts with Mattia Preti broadened his artistic horizons and introduced him to Neapolitan Baroque art. His work had great popular appeal and helped to stimulate the emergence of a Maltese school of Baroque painting in the 18th century. His most prestigious commission, and one of his best works, is the Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, St John). Equally remarkable are the huge altarpiece of the ...

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Janet Southorn

[Hercolani.]

Italian family of patrons. The Bolognese branch of the family was descended from Andrea Ercolani, who settled in Bologna early in the 15th century. In the second quarter of the 16th century Conte Vincenzo Ercolani became a senator in Bologna and was ennobled by Pope Clement VII. For the family chapel in S Maria del Baraccano he commissioned a Disputation of St Catherine (c. 1551–60; in situ) from Prospero Fontana (i), and according to Vasari he was the owner (perhaps the first) of Raphael’s Vision of Ezekiel (Florence, Pitti) and the Noli me tangere by Correggio (c. 1520–28; Madrid, Prado). In 1560 the writer Pietro Lamo noted these paintings in the collection of Conte Agostino Ercolani. In the 17th century the family continued its patronage of painters, including Guercino. In 1699 Filippo Ercolani was made a prince of the Holy Roman Empire by the Emperor Leopold I. In Bologna Filippo was a patron of the painters ...

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Gordon Campbell