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Article

Elisabeth Landolt

Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484 he founded his own print shop and publishing house. He was in close contact with Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s stay in Basle (1491–2). Apart from works of art for personal use, for example ornamental daggers, he probably owned graphic and print blocks for woodcut illustrations by Dürer. Johannes’s son, Bonifacius Amerbach (b Basle, 11 Oct 1495; d Basle, 24 April 1562), a lawyer, professor at the University of Basle and syndic of the Basle council, was the heir and executor of Erasmus and owned paintings by the Holbein family and important gold and silver pieces, for example the well-known ‘...

Article

[Pieter]

(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...

Article

Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...

Article

(b Bergamo, c. 1458; fl Venice, 1543).

Italian printer and publisher of books and prints. He settled in Venice c. 1480 and in 1483 was running a bookshop at the sign of St Jerome in the Merceria and published the Supplementum chronicarum of Jacobus Philippus Foresti (Bergomensis; 1434–1520). Between then and 1543, the year of the publication of Girolamo Savonarola’s Trattato dell’amor di Gesù, he published (alone or with other publishers) over 100 texts of Classical and contemporary authors, treatises on law and medicine, as well as several books of a religious nature, mostly in Latin. Among the most famous illustrated works are those of Dante Alighieri (1491) and Ovid (1493–4). After c. 1500 Benalio’s publishing activity declined (c. 40 post-1500 publications are known), perhaps pushed into second place by his new interest, the publication and marketing of prints. For this purpose he opened a branch at Padua, entrusting its management to a relative, ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

Italian family of typographers, engravers, publishers and print dealers. Members of the family were active in Venice and Padua in the 16th century and the early 17th. Most notable among them were Luca Bertelli (fl Venice, c. 1560; fl Padua, 1594), Orazio Bertelli (fl Venice, 1562–88), who was possibly Luca’s brother, and Ferdinando (Ferrando, Ferrante) Bertelli (fl Venice, 1561–72). It is difficult to determine the extent of Luca Bertelli’s participation in the execution of the prints he published; they were mainly historical, religious and mythological. Orazio Bertelli probably encouraged Agostino Carracci’s visit to Venice in 1582. Orazio’s engravings included the works of Federico Barocci, Domenico Tibaldi and Paolo Veronese, notably a Pietà (De Grazia, p. 125, no. 102). Ferdinando Bertelli was best known for his publication of a vast number of maps, by both Italian and foreign cartographers.

DBI; Thieme–Becker D. De Grazia: Le stampe dei Carracci...

Article

(fl 1488; d Padua, Feb 1530).

Italian illuminator, printmaker and writer. He is first mentioned in Padua as an illuminator in 1488. He has been identified as the Benedetto Padovano who signed the Digestum novum (benedi[cti] patav[ini]) and the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX (be[nedicti] pa[tavini]), published by Jenson in Venice in 1477 and 1479 respectively (Gotha, Landesbib., Mon. Typ. 1477; Mon. Typ. 1479). Both incunabula were commissioned by the German book dealer Peter Ugelheimer, for whom Girolamo da Cremona also worked, probably shortly after 1483; the apparent dependence of Bordon’s style on Girolamo, particularly in his early works, may suggest that the Gotha incunabula were decorated after that date, during the years in which Bordon is documented in Padua. In the same period he probably also illuminated two folios (Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml., 40198 and 40140), a Book of Hours (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. 1970) and a Cistercian Breviary (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Canon. Lit. 343)....

Article

Françoise Jestaz

(b Viterbo; fl 1560; d Naples, April 16, 1620).

Italian printmaker and cartographer. He was in Rome by 1560, the date of his first known engraving, the Adoration of the Shepherds (b. 2), after Heinrich Aldegrever. Bartsch recorded 28 prints by him, to which Passavant added a further 27. Mainly engravings, his works include St Jerome (b. 14), after Albrecht Dürer, Christ Descending into Limbo (b. 7), after Andrea Mantegna, the Last Judgement (b. 18), after Michelangelo, and a Landscape (b. 26), after Titian. Until 1577 Cartaro collaborated with the publisher Antoine Lafréry, providing illustrations for the Speculum Romanae magnificentiae, a collection of plans and views issued between 1545 and 1577, and for Le tavole moderne di geografia (c. 1580). After this, he turned increasingly to the more profitable activity of print-selling. He spent his last years in Naples making drawings for printed maps of the kingdom of Naples (e.g. b. 27) with the help of the mathematician ...

Article

(b Villa Lagarina, nr Trento, c. 1525; d Rome, July 23, 1601).

Italian engraver, publisher and draughtsman. Active from 1559 in Rome, his repertories of engravings reflect the antiquarian interests of his patrons, high clergy of the Counter-Reformation Church. The Antiquarum statuarum urbis Romae provides the first systematic publication of engravings of antique statues in public and private, mostly clerical, collections in Rome. Printed between c. 1560 and 1594 in a series of small editions, its number of plates increased from 58 to 200. The representations of the statues are accurate, showing the degree of restoration. Latin captions give their names and locations, which in later editions reflect changes of address. Cavalieri’s plates were also reprinted in the 17th century. Ashby described each standard edition by Cavalieri and his followers and tabled the plates of the various editions, including captions and present locations of the statues. Many extant copies vary from the standard editions, as customers chose loose plates to bind with a title-page (Gerlach, ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(fl 1558–74).

French painter, draughtsman, print publisher and possibly engraver. He was a painter working in Orléans and published about 20 prints, dated between 1558 and 1574, which he may have engraved himself. He may have gained his knowledge of the art of the School of Fontainebleau from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (i), who was at one point established in Orléans. It is possible, however, that he worked at the château of Fontainebleau, since his engraving the Masquerade of Persepolis is an interpretation of a painting by Francesco Primaticcio in the chamber of the Duchesse d’Etampes there. Chartier also published and possibly engraved the same artist’s Ulysses Recognized by his Dog, the 34th picture in the Galerie d’Ulysse at Fontainebleau. Original prints by him, such as Blazons of Virtue and the Naked Man Walking on Hot Coals, are typical of the style of Fontainebleau and representative of provincial French Mannerism in their almost excessive and somewhat angular refinement....

Article

(b Antwerp, c. 1560; d Antwerp, June 29, 1618).

Flemish draughtsman, engraver, print publisher and dealer. He was probably trained by the engraver and publisher Philip Galle, whose daughter Justa (d 1616) he married in 1586, and with whom he collaborated. In 1580 Adriaen was admitted to the Antwerp Guild of St Luke as a master’s son; in 1596 and 1597 he was respectively assistant dean and dean. Collaert produced a notable and extensive oeuvre of c. 600 engravings, including various series after his own drawings of birds, fish and animals (e.g. Animalium quadrupedum, Hollstein, nos 596–615; and Avium vivae icones, 1580; Hollstein, nos 616–47). Also after his own designs are the series of engravings of the Four Elements (pubd by himself; Hollstein, nos 453–6) and Flowers (pubd by Theodoor Galle; Hollstein, nos 679–702). All these rather uneven compositions are characterized by the faithful representation of nature. Collaert’s own compositions often include decorative borders consisting of flowers, animals and grotesques. This suggests he was important as a designer of ornament. However, by far the majority of his work comprises engravings after other Netherlandish artists, including ...

Article

(b Amsterdam, 1522; d Gouda, Oct 29, 1590).

Dutch printmaker, poet, writer, theologian and philosopher. His work as a printmaker began in Haarlem in 1547, when he made a woodcut for a lottery poster after a design of Maarten van Heemskerck. From then until 1559 Coornhert worked as Heemskerck’s principal engraver. Initially he etched his plates, but during the 1550s he turned to engraving. He was possibly also responsible for the woodcuts after Heemskerck and the publication of Heemskerck’s early prints. In addition, he engraved designs by Willem Thibaut (1524–97) in 1556–7, Lambert Lombard in 1556 and Frans Floris in 1554–7. During this period Philip Galle was his pupil. In 1560 Coornhert temporarily stopped his engraving activities, set up a print publishing house, became a clerk and devoted himself to his literary work. In 1567 he was arrested for political reasons but managed to escape to Cologne in 1568. During his exile, which lasted until 1576...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, 1503; d Geneva, Sept 7, 1559).

French printer and publisher. After training with his father, the printer and publisher Henri Estienne (?1460–1520), and then with his stepfather, Simon de Colines (fl 1520–48), he checked and proofread the family editions of the Epistles, Apocalypse, Acts and Psalms in 1522–3. Between 1525 and 1530 he produced the Latin Grammar of Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560). In 1526 he produced the works of Terence, which ran to four editions, the last with notes by Erasmus (other early Classical texts produced subsequently include editions of Plautus in 1529 and Virgil in 1532). His first major work was the 1527 Bible, reissued in 1528 and 1532. In 1528 he embarked on a major project: a Thesaurus linguae latinae, the definitive edition of which appeared in 1543. Estienne’s entire output is estimated to have been between 460 and 470 editions, and he printed books for other publishers as well as his own works. From ...

Article

Kristin Lohse Belkin

(b Heidelberg, 1527–8; d Frankfurt am Main, 1590).

German publisher and woodblock-cutter. He was the son of the painter and blockcutter Ägidius Feyerabend and his wife, Anna Brentlein (d 1568), daughter of a rabbi in Mainz. After an apprenticeship with Jörg Breu (ii) in Augsburg, begun on 19 July 1540, Feyerabend spent some time in Italy and perhaps also in Mainz. In 1559 he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he married the same year and acquired citizenship in 1560. After working as a block cutter and possibly also as a designer of book illustrations, he soon turned to the business side of publishing, which he managed with considerable success and, judging from numerous lawsuits, with shrewdness. He employed almost all the printers in Frankfurt am Main and attracted the best book illustrators in the country, foremost among them Virgil Solis from Nuremberg and Jost Amman from Zurich. One of his most successful collaborations with Solis resulted in a magnificent picture Bible in Martin Luther’s translation (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).

German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Paris, 1480; d Paris, 1561).

French typefounder. Garamond worked as a typefounder for several Parisian printers and designed the roman typeface now known as typi regii and the Greek type (now known as grecs du roi) used by Robert Estienne in an edition of Eusebius (1544) commissioned by Valois, House of family §(14)...

Article

[Hendrik]

(b Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], Jan or Feb 1558; d Haarlem, Jan 1, 1617).

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker, print publisher and painter. He was an important artist of the transitional period between the late 16th century and the early 17th, when the conception of art in the northern Netherlands was gradually changing. Goltzius was initially an exponent of Mannerism, with its strong idealization of subject and form. Together with the other two well-known Dutch Mannerists, Karel van Mander I and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, he introduced the complex compositional schemes and exaggeratedly contorted figures of Bartholomäus Spranger to the northern Netherlands. These three artists are also supposed to have established an academy in Haarlem in the mid-1580s, but virtually nothing is known about this project. In 1590 Goltzius travelled to Italy, thereafter abandoning Spranger as a model and developing a late Renaissance style based on a broadly academic and classicizing approach. Later still, his art reflected the growing interest in naturalism that emerged in the northern Netherlands from ...

Article

W. Le Loup

(b Venlo, Oct 30, 1526; d Bruges, March 2, 1583).

Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter and numismatist. He was the son of Rutger den Meeler (Rutger van Weertsburg) and Catherina Goltzius, whose family name was taken by her husband. After studying in Venlo, Hubertus was sent to Luik (Liège) to the academy of Lambert Lombard, to whom he was apprenticed until 1546. He then moved to Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St Luke and took on Willem Smout as his pupil. Before 1550 Goltzius married Elisabeth Verhulst Bessemers, a painter from Mechelen, with whom he had four sons and three daughters. Her sister Mayken Verhulst was the second wife of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, which brought Goltzius into artistic circles. Goltzius was active in Antwerp as a painter and antiques dealer, but the only painting that can be attributed to him with certainty is the Last Judgement (1557) for the town hall at Venlo. In Antwerp he was introduced by his friends to prominent numismatists, for whom he made drawings of coins and began a system of their classification. For the same purpose Goltzius undertook a study trip in ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(fl Venice, 1543–58).

Italian painter, wood-engraver and publisher. No paintings by him are known. In August 1546, on his return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he requested from the Venetian Senate a licence to publish a series of drawings executed during his journey. This privilege being granted, the work was published under the title Particularis et vera descriptio plateae sancti sepulcri … diligentia Dominici Dalle Greche Venet. Pict. descripta MDXLI … (the date is clearly incorrect). He later provided illustrations for the Pellegrinaggio di Ulrich von Wilkanaus (Prague, 1547). He also provided the botanical illustrations for the codices by the naturalist Pietro Antonio Michiel (Venice, Bib. N. Marciana, MSS Marc. It. II. 26-30/4860–4). Apart from some maps, some of which are lost, his most notable undertaking is the 1549 edition of Titian’s 12-block wood-engraving of the Submersion of Pharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea. On the Pharaoh’s scroll ornament is the inscription ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...

Article

(b Gräfentonna, Thuringia, July 13, 1841; d Tegernsee, Bavaria, March 28, 1916).

German writer, publisher and editor. In 1875 he co-founded the publishing company Knorr & Hirth based in Munich. Werke unserer Väter, an exhibition of German Renaissance arts and crafts held in Munich in 1876, stimulated his interest in art, and in that year he began to edit and publish a series of handsomely produced art books and prints in affordable editions. In 1881 he took over the printing of the Münchner neuesten Nachrichten, developing it into one of Germany’s leading daily newspapers. He himself wrote on a wide range of issues. In Ideen über Zeichenunterricht und künstlerische Berufsbildung (1887), for example, he advocated a democratizing reform of the teaching of art; in Das plastische Sehen als Rindenzwang (1892) he took issue with the optical theories of Hermann von Helmholtz by propagating the idea that the optical function was physiologically inborn. Although he initially favoured German Gothic and early Renaissance art, by the 1890s he had become interested in contemporary art. In ...