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Charlotte Gere

French gem-engraver of German birth. He worked in cameo in the Renaissance Revival style. Many of his gems are copies of English and French royal portraits dating from the 16th century. The cutting is very sharp and refined, often more so than in the original, and his gems are characterized by the frequent use of a raised line cut from the pale layer of the stone to border the main subject in imitation of the 16th-century Italian engravers from whom he derived his models and style. Bissinger’s skill was demonstrated by a series of 112 gems, copied from examples in the ...


Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

African American sculptor. Her long career anticipated and included the period of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s (see African American art, §I, 2). Born Meta Vaux Warrick, she studied at the Pennsylvania Museum and School for Industrial Art, Philadelphia, from ...


Irish sculptor. He entered the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin in 1878, attending as a part-time student for ten years. His influences were mainly from the Italian Renaissance, and he retained his love for the work of Jacopo della Quercia throughout his life. In ...


Christian Lenz

German painter, draughtsman and sculptor. Marées was a leading representative of the later 19th-century return to Renaissance models, especially the use of figure painting in large-scale decorative schemes.

He studied in Berlin (1853–5), first at the Akademie and then in the studio of the equestrian painter ...


Jennifer Wingate

American sculptor, active also in France. Scudder developed a lively style influenced by antique and Renaissance statuary as well as by the animated figurative work of Frederick William MacMonnies . The carefree spirit of her sculpture suited the tastes of wealthy Americans who ordered her bronzes for the grounds of their country estates, and her fountains helped garden sculpture achieve a new level of prestige. She had one of the most successful careers of any woman artist of the early 20th century....


Mark Stocker

English sculptor, designer and painter. He showed precocious talent as a painter (Self-portrait at the Age of 14, 1832; London, Tate). In 1833 he went to Italy to study Renaissance painting and later received some training at the Accademia in Florence. In 1841–2 he worked in Rome as an assistant to ...