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Paul Davies and David Hemsoll

Italian architect, sculptor, painter, theorist and writer. The arts of painting, sculpture and architecture were, for Alberti, only three of an exceptionally broad range of interests, for he made his mark in fields as diverse as family ethics, philology and cryptography. It is for his contribution to the visual arts, however, that he is chiefly remembered. Alberti single-handedly established a theoretical foundation for the whole of ...

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Phyllis Pray Bober

Italian painter, sculptor, illuminator, printmaker and draughtsman . He was born into a family of painters, and his youthful facility reportedly astonished his contemporaries. His work developed in the Emilian–Ferrarese tradition of Ercole de’ Roberti, Lorenzo Costa the elder and, above all, Francesco Francia. Until the re-evaluation by Longhi, critical assessment of Amico’s oeuvre was over-reliant on literary sources, especially Vasari’s unsympathetic account of an eccentric, half-insane master working so rapidly with both hands (the ‘chiaro’ in one, the ‘scuro’ in the other) that he was able to finish decorating an entire house façade in one day....

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Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

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Isabel Mateo Gómez

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (...

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Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal ...

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J. J. Martín González

Spanish painter and sculptor, also active in Italy. He was a major figure in Spanish art during the third quarter of the 16th century; he went to Italy around 1545 and, although there is no evidence that he collaborated with Michelangelo, he undoubtedly studied his works, and he was responsible for introducing into Spain Michelangelo’s painting style as seen in the ...

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Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at ...

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Paul Huvenne

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram lab testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In ...

Article

Italian illuminator, painter and sculptor. He was principally active as an illuminator and ran a workshop of considerable repute in Bologna. In 1486 he collaborated with Martino da Modena (fl 1477–89) on the decoration of choir-books for S Petronio, Bologna, and this contact with Martino undoubtedly influenced his style. In ...

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Andrea Bayer

Italian painter and sculptor. Although living in Milan in 1487, he was primarily active in Brescia and Crema, as well as smaller centres in the vicinity, arriving in the former city around 1490. He was influenced by Vincenzo Foppa, with whom Vasari and Lomazzo confused him. In ...

Article

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and ...

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Joanne Wright

Italian painter. He was a Syracusan whose identity was established by an inscription and date (no longer legible) on a panel of St Jerome (Syracuse Cathedral, Sacristy), painted for S Girolamo fuori le Mura. His relationship with his fellow Sicilian Antonello da Messina is not clear; it has been suggested that they were students together in Naples, but it seems more likely that Costanzo was influenced by Antonello in the 1470s than that they shared a common background in the 1440s. The ...

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Kristen Lippincott

Italian painter and medallist . He was brought up as the adopted son of a certain Giovanni Bonayti, but a document of 1489 records him as the (illegitimate) son of Niccolò III d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara. In most documents, however, he is called ‘Baldassare da Reggio’....

Article

Helen Geddes

Italian painter and sculptor. He worked mainly in the Marches, but it has been suggested that he was in Naples in 1440–45 and possibly trained there (Donnini). This is reinforced by the apparent influence of Antonello da Messina in his two dated autograph paintings, St Jerome in his Study...

Article

Italian painter, draughtsman, sculptor and military engineer. He is first documented in 1523 in Bologna but had probably arrived there c. 1520. Between 1515 and 1520 he produced an engraving (initialled) of Susanna and the Elders and a series of drawings that were engraved by ...

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Paul Barolsky

Italian painter, stuccoist and sculptor. Much of the fascination of his career resides in the development of his style from provincial origins to a highly sophisticated manner, combining the most accomplished elements of the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and their Mannerist followers in a distinctive and highly original way. He provided an influential model for numerous later artists in Rome....

Article

Italian sculptor and painter. He was probably the son of the goldsmith Giacomo di Paolo Sulmona, recorded as resident in L’Aquila by 1467. Silvestro is first documented in 1471, sharing a workshop with Giovanni Biascuccio, and again at the end of the decade in partnership with the Florentine ...

Article

John T. Paoletti

Italian painter and sculptor, active also in Spain. Nothing is known of his training in painting and sculpture. Vasari attributed to him the terracotta Coronation of the Virgin in the tympanum of a portal at S Maria Nuova, Florence; in 1424 Bicci di Lorenzo was paid for painting the figures. Stylistically it is related to Ghiberti’s figural forms. Vasari also indicated that Dello was responsible for paintings on furniture, although no attributable examples survive. In ...

Article

Francesco Paolo Fiore and Pietro C. Marani

Italian architect, engineer, painter, illuminator, sculptor, medallist, theorist and writer. He was the most outstanding artistic personality from Siena in the second half of the 15th century. His activities as a diplomat led to his employment at the courts of Naples, Milan and Urbino, as well as in Siena, and while most of his paintings and miniatures date from before ...

Article

Adam White

English sculptor and painter. He was born (probably at Epiphany) into a family of Herefordshire gentry, the fourteenth and youngest child of William Evesham of Wellington. He is said to have been a pupil of the Southwark sculptor Richard Stevens, but the source of this information is unreliable. His earliest recorded work is an engraved sun-dial (...