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Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Andrew John Martin

(b Bologna, 1627; d after 1687).

Italian architect. His first known work is in connection with the church of S Bartolomeo (consecrated 1664) in Bologna; he completed this for the Theatines to the designs, which he modified, of Giovanni Battista Falcetti (1580–1629). His masterpiece is the church of St Kajetan in Munich, which was commissioned by Adelaide Henrietta of Savoy (1636–76), wife of Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, in thanksgiving for the long-awaited birth in 1662 of the heir to the throne, Maximilian II Emmanuel. When her initial attempt to employ Guarino Guarini failed, Adelaide Henrietta approached Barelli, who submitted his first scheme in Munich in October 1662 and was awarded the commission. Six months later he presented a second set of designs; in April 1663 the foundation stone was laid. The building, which faces the Residenz, was designed to fulfil several functions: it served as a church for the Theatines and as a sacred ceremonial assembly hall for the court, and it housed the Wittelsbach family sepulchre. One of the terms of the commission was that Barelli should observe the proportions of the mother church of the Theatines, S Andrea della Valle (...

Article

Ludovico Borgo and Margot Borgo

[Porta, Baccio della]

(b Florence, March 28, 1472; d Florence, Oct 31, 1517).

Italian painter and draughtsman. Vasari and later historians agree that Fra Bartolommeo was an essential force in the formation and growth of the High Renaissance. He was the first painter in Florence to understand Leonardo da Vinci’s painterly and compositional procedures. Later he created a synthesis between Leonardo’s tonal painting and Venetian luminosity of colour. Equally important were his inventions for depicting divinity as a supernatural force, and his type of sacra conversazione in which the saints are made to witness and react to a biblical event occurring before their eyes, rather than standing in devout contemplation, as was conventional before. His drawings, too, are exceptional both for their abundance and for their level of inventiveness. Many artists came under his influence: Albertinelli, Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Titian, Correggio, Beccafumi, Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino.

Fra Bartolommeo was the son of Paolo, a muleteer and carter. After 1478 he lived in a modest family house outside the Porta S Pier Gattolini in Florence and consequently was dubbed Baccio (a Tuscan diminutive for Bartolommeo) della Porta. In ...

Article

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....

Article

Robin A. Branstator

[Morten]

(d Copenhagen, 1553).

Danish sculptor and architect. His sculptural work shows a precocious awareness of early Renaissance art, suggesting that he trained in the workshop of Claus Berg in Odense. He first served Christian II, King of Denmark (reg 1512–23), as architect and sculptor and had settled in Copenhagen by 1523. His tombstone sculptures equal or surpass his architectural successes. The first in his series of gravestone reliefs was of Elisabeth of Habsburg (c. 1523; Copenhagen, Nmus.), Christian II’s queen, a pendant to an earlier representation of King John (1503; Copenhagen, Nmus.), sculpted by Adam van Düren. The limestone high relief had a conventional Gothic framework but hinted at Bussaert’s mature work in the more naturalistic folds of Elisabeth’s gown. After Christian II fled to the Netherlands in 1523, Bussaert elected to remain in Copenhagen in the employ of the newly crowned Frederick I (reg 1523–34). Frederick rewarded Bussaert well, naming him master builder in ...

Article

Fernando Marías

(de)

(b Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Aug 23, 1501; d Trigueros, Huelva, June 21, 1570).

Spanish architect. He began his career as an ecclesiastic in the parish of Caravaña, Madrid. After studying in Alcalá de Henares he served Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera as secretary (1534–6) and chaplain (1536–45) and travelled to Italy as his diplomatic envoy (1536). Tavera appointed him Inspector of Works for the archbishopric of Toledo, where he advised on the layout of the Hospital de S Juan Bautista (1541–50), which was founded by Tavera and built to Covarrubias’s designs. As the administrator (and rector) of the project (from 1549), Bustamante’s main responsibility lay with the organization of construction; his criticism of the different schemes confirms his actual absence from the planning process. In 1551 Bustamante left Toledo to join the Jesuit Order, becoming secretary (1552–4) to Francisco Borja (1510–72), Provincial of Andalusia (1555–61), general of the Jesuit Order (...

Article

Jean-Pierre Babelon

(b Vic-sur-Seille, Moselle, 1588 or 1591; d Agde, Hérault, Oct 29, 1644).

French Jesuit priest and architect. Entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in 1611, he studied in Rouen and La Flèche, was ordained a priest in 1621 and studied theology in Paris (1621–2). He had also taught grammar at Rennes (1615–18) and mathematics at La Flèche (1618–21). He worked first as an architect at the Jesuit college in Rouen, where from 1622 to 1629 he was praefectus fabricae; then as architectus at the college in Rennes, where he supervised the building works; at the college of Orléans, for which he provided plans in 1632; and, above all, at the Jesuit church in Paris, St Louis (now St Paul–St Louis). In plans for the latter he found himself in competition with Etienne Martellange. Both sets of plans were submitted to Rome; those by Martellange were preferred, and he began work on the church in ...

Article

P. Gabriel Kleeb

Benedictine abbey and Marian pilgrimage site c. 35 km south-east of Zurich, in the canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The original abbey, on the site of the martyrdom of St Meinrad (ad 861), was founded in 934 by Eberhard, provost of Strasbourg Cathedral. The abbey church (consecrated 948) burnt down in 1029 in the first of a series of fires. A new building, erected in 1039, was divided in the middle by twin towers into an upper and lower minster, corresponding to the respective requirements of monks and pilgrims. Baroque rebuilding started in 1674, when Johann Georg Kuen began work on a new monks’ choir and a confessional chapel for the upper minster (completed 1684).

Plans for reconstructing the upper minster, then the rest of the church and finally the whole abbey were commissioned in 1702 from Caspar Moosbrugger, a lay brother of the abbey who had worked as a mason under Kuen. The work was carried out between ...

Article

Fernando Marías

[San Lorenzo el Real de Escorial.]

Royal monastery and palace, c. 50 km north-west of Madrid, Spain.

Emperor Charles V (reg 1516–56) left a final codicil in his will for the establishment of a religious foundation in which he was to be buried beside his wife, Isabella of Portugal (1503–39). His son, Philip II (see Habsburg, House of family, §II, (2)), undertook the task after his return from Flanders in 1559 and appointed Toledo, Juan Bautista de as the royal architect. In 1560 a site was chosen in a farming area at the foot of the Guadarrama Mountains, 2 km from the town of El Escorial, and entrusted to the Hieronymite Order in the following year. The new monastery, which received its foundation charter in 1567, was named S Lorenzo el Real del Escorial, after St Lawrence of Rome, a martyr of supposed Hispanic origin, and was intended to serve as the royal pantheon. Tradition, however, also holds that it was dedicated to S Lorenzo de la Victoria, in fulfilment of a vow made by Philip II to atone for the destruction of a church dedicated to St Lawrence at the Battle of San Quintín (...

Article

António Filipe Pimentel

Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son Carlos Baptista Garbo (d Mafra, 1725) was trained in the same skills of masonry at São Antão, and he also became a designer of altarpieces. The high altar with marble mosaic for the old Jesuit church, now the seminary, Santarém, was designed by Carlos Baptista along 17th-century lines and made in 1713 in the workshops of São Antão. It was here that his son António Baptista Garbo (b Lisbon, 1692; d ?Lisbon) was trained and also worked in the service of the Jesuits.

The ability of the Garbo family is most visible at Mafra, where Carlos Baptista superintended the construction of the vast palace, church and convent, following the plans of ...

Article

Giuseppe Pinna

(Rome)

Giuseppe Pinna

The construction of a worthy seat for the emerging Society of Jesus (see Jesuit Order, §1) was delayed by the opposition of the families (especially the Altieri) who owned the land on which the church was to be built. The first plan for Il Gesù (SS Nome di Gesù), produced in 1549–50 by Nanni di Baccio Bigio, was for a longitudinal scheme with six chapels flanking the nave and a short transept. The work was soon interrupted, however, and the efforts of Cardinal della Cueva to have it resumed had little effect, although he had obtained a new plan free of charge in 1554 from Michelangelo.

In 1568 building began in earnest thanks to the lavish patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who put Jacopo Vignola in charge along with the Jesuit Giovanni Tristano (d 1575). Vignola adopted the longitudinal scheme with stubby transepts and three interconnected chapels at each side of the nave, respecting the wishes of Farnese, who considered the plan most suitable for the devotional requirements of the Counter-Reformation liturgy. Two additional chapels were set into the sides of the apse. The strong spatial unity of the interior (...

Article

(b Verona, 1433; d Rome, July 1, 1515).

Italian engineer, architect, epigraphist, and scholar. He was much sought after for his technical skills, particularly his expertise in hydraulics and military engineering, while his wide-ranging interests in archaeology, theology, urban planning, and philology earned him the regard of his contemporaries; Vasari described him as ‘un uomo rarissimo ed universale’. He was almost certainly a Franciscan friar, but it is not known where he acquired his architectural training. Given his lifelong and profound study of Classical architecture and inscriptions, Vasari’s assertion that he spent time in Rome as a youth is plausible. One of his earliest endeavours was to compile a collection of Latin inscriptions. The first version (1478–c. 1489), which included drawings and was dedicated to Lorenzo de’ Medici, became an important and much-copied reference work; it was also a major source for the Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, the principal 19th-century compilation. A fine copy survives (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Vat. lat. 10228), transcribed by Giocondo’s friend and sometime collaborator, the eminent Paduan calligrapher, ...

Article

Julius Fekete

(b Stuttgart, July 1, 1840; d Nuremberg, Nov 19, 1884).

German architect and teacher. He studied at the Stuttgart Polytechnikum under Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92) and then became a railway engineer in Württemberg (1860–61). His study of Renaissance architecture on a visit to Italy (1861–2) strongly influenced his subsequent work. He spent three years (1863–6) in various architectural offices in Vienna, taught briefly at the Stuttgart Baugewerkschule (1866–7), then moved to London (1867–9) to work for the Arundel Society, preparing a book on the tombs in Venice and Verona.

In 1870 Gnauth became professor at the Stuttgart Polytechnikum as a result of the success of his Villa Siegle (c. 1868; destr.) in Stuttgart, based on the Early Renaissance Villa Carlotta on Lake Como. Gnauth collaborated on the villa’s decoration with the painter Ludwig Lesker (1840–90), with whom he edited the Maler-Journal from 1875. They collaborated on several further commissions, including the Palais Engelhorn (...

Article

Richard Bösel

(b Savona, May 1, 1583; d Rome, July 23, 1654).

Italian priest, architect and mathematician. He was born into an established Savonese noble family but joined the Jesuit Order in Rome at the age of 17, taking his vows in 1618. As early as 1616 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, a position he held with interruptions until 1627. Although he soon earned the highest respect and engaged in discussions with Galileo Galilei on his theories about the nature of comets, he is best known for his achievements in the field of architecture. He may be considered the most important Jesuit architect of the first half of the 17th century.

Grassi seems to have come to the profession by way of architectural theory: in 1612 he was instructed by his Order to establish an academy to train Jesuit architects. This institution seems to have been short-lived, if it existed at all. From 1617 to 1624 and again from ...

Article

Alice Dugdale

[Fra Francesco]

(b Oppido Lucano, Calabria, 1543; d Naples, Aug 1, 1613).

Italian architect. He joined the Theatine Order in Naples in 1574. His first major building was the church of S Paolo Maggiore, Naples (1581–1603). Its nave arcades give a strong sense of movement, with arches of alternating height opening into domed or vaulted bays. In 1588, as presumably the most eminent Theatine architect, he was summoned to Rome to design the Order’s new church of S Andrea della Valle. Because of the influence of Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo (d 1603), he was obliged to submit his designs to Giacomo della Porta for approval; this leaves the evolution of the design uncertain, especially as della Porta left soon after the foundation stone was laid, while Grimaldi remained in Rome until 1598. During this time he also visited Lecce, where he worked on the church of S Irene (1588–1639). Grimaldi’s first major commission on his return to Naples was to build S Maria degli Angeli (begun ...

Article

Peter Stein

(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).

Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.

Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...

Article

Mario Schwarz

Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in 1136. From the time of Leopold IV (reg 1136–41) Heiligenkreuz was the preferred burial place of the Babenbergs.

The nave of the church, begun before 1147 and consecrated in 1187, is an ashlar building, which at first had a flat ceiling. Excavations have shown that the original east end consisted of three apses without a transept. In 1147 Henry II (reg 1141–77) donated the village of Münchendorf and its revenues to the abbey, making it possible to vault the church, and a further endowment in 1156 enabled the monastic buildings to be rebuilt in stone. The five-bay aisled nave, the proportions of which are based on a module derived from the crossing square, has alternating supports. The aisles are groin-vaulted, but the main vessel has domical vaults with ribs of a plain, rectangular profile, the transverse arches resting on short pilasters corbelled above the arcade (...

Article

J.-P. Esther

(b Antwerp, June 1601; d Brussels, March 4, 1690).

Flemish architect. He joined the Jesuits in 1617 and went to school in Antwerp from 1619 to 1621, at which time the church of St Carolus Borromeus was being built after the design of Franciscus Aguilonius and Peter Huyssens. Initially, Hesius came to prominence as a preacher and an important figure in religious politics, and he did not become active as an architect until he was nearly 50. During the third quarter of the 17th century he was his order’s most important architectural adviser. The plans for St Michielskerk, Leuven, one of the most important examples of Flemish Baroque architecture, have been attributed to him and date from 1650. They show the influence of Vitruvius (known in the Netherlands through the translations of Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Sebastiano Serlio), as well as the influence of illustrations by Jean Maggius. The design is characterized principally by a high lantern tower with a dome above the junction of transept and nave. The church, completed in ...