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[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Annamaria Szőke

(b Budapest, July 4, 1928; d Budapest, May 22, 1986).

Hungarian architect, sculptor, conceptual and performance artist, teacher, theorist and film maker. He came from a Jewish–Christian family, many of whom were killed during World War II. In 1947 he began training as a sculptor at the College of Fine Arts in Budapest, but he left and continued his studies in the studio of Dezső Birman Bokros (1889–1965), before training as an architect from 1947 to 1951 at the Technical University in Budapest. During the 1950s and early 1960s he worked as an architect and began experimenting with painting and graphic art, as well as writing poems and short stories. During this period he became acquainted with such artists as Dezső Korniss, László Latner and, most importantly, Béla Kondor and Sándor Altorjai (1933–79), with whom he began a lifelong friendship. In 1959 and 1963 he also enrolled at the Budapest College of Theatre and Film Arts but was advised to leave both times....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], May 10, 1876; d Oslo, Feb 20, 1959).

Norwegian architect, urban planner and writer. After preliminary training at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, he was educated as an architect in Berlin (1898), Stockholm (1900) and Champaign, IL (1906). He worked in the USA and in England until 1911, starting his own practice in Christiania in 1912. In 1918 he was appointed Director of the Municipal Housing Office of Christiania, and from 1926 to 1947 he acted as the city’s Chief Planning Officer. Hals began in a ‘romantic’ vein with his buildings for the English-inspired Ullevål Garden City (1915–22), Oslo, laid out by Paul Oscar Hoff (1875–1942), but he soon became an accomplished neo-classicist. Hegermanns plass (1919) is an octagonal open space surrounded by thinly plastered brick blocks of flats. Classical pilasters set off the corner angles, but National Romanticism is suggested by the steep roofs and the colonnettes between the arched openings. The neo-classicism of the two blocks of flats at Hans Nielsen Hauges gate 32 and 34 (...