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Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Chen Xian worked for the Huangbo sect around 1635-1675. He painted many Buddhist figures.

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born in Jiaxing (Zhejiang).

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yuangong was active at the beginning of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). He later became a Buddhist monk.

London (British Mus.): Hermit in Red Robe on Mountain Ledge (album leaf, signed...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1547, in Xiuning (Anhui); died after 1628.

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yunpeng painted mainly Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of the Tang painters Wu Daozi (active c.720-760) and Li Longmian, notably in his way of outlining with the brush. He was connected with the painter Dong Qichang (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He entered the Shingon-sect temple Kansōji at the age of four or five, transferring to the Sōtō-sect Zen temple Chōgenji a few years later. Around the age of 16 he moved to the leading Sōtō temple in eastern Japan, Sōrinji. After completing his Zen training, perhaps in ...

Article

Enku  

Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1628, in Gifu Prefecture; died 1695, in Miroku-ji temple, Gifu Prefecture.

Monk-sculptor.

Little is known about the birthplace and life of Enku, a Tendai Buddhist monk, except that he travelled the country widely, sculpting on popular demand, and that his works are in fact a form of devotion. The immense amount of work he produced (he vowed to produce 120,000 pieces) stands apart from traditional Buddhist sculpture of the time. His prolific output was fired by a deep faith; he worked with great speed using a billhook and knife, taking into account the veins in the wood in order to respect its true nature. His works exude an undeniable serenity. They are to be found in numerous temples, most particularly in the regions of Mino and Hida (Gifu province) where he often stayed, but also on the northern island of Hokkaido, where he was to be found between ...

Article

Enkū  

Donald F. McCallum

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist itinerant monk (hijiri). He was active during the early Edo period (1600–1868). He entered the priesthood of the Tendai sect (see Buddhism, §III, 10) at an early age, this being one of the few means of advancement within feudal society for individuals of the lower classes. Enkū began sculpting images in the early 1660s for both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in his home province. In the later 1660s he made an important missionary expedition to the Tōhoku region of Honshu and to the northern island of Hokkaido, which had only recently come under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, introducing Buddhism and Buddhist imagery to that still remote island. Thereafter he travelled extensively, carving icons for rural temples and wayside shrines in Honshu, especially in the Kantō and Chūbu regions. He also carved images on living trees on mountain-tops. For more than 300 years his works were little known outside their localities; to local people they were objects of worship, imbued with magical powers to heal and protect....

Article

Genkei  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1648, in Kyoto; died 1710.

Sculptor, monk.

After having been a sculptor of Buddhist statues in Kyoto, Genkei became a monk in 1669, at the age of 21, and a disciple of Tetsugen Zenji. He then went on a long preaching tour of Japan during which he conceived the vast project of carving statues of the Rakan (the Arhats, or disciples of the Buddha). He went to Edo (now Tokyo) to seek the assistance of Tetsugyu Osho, a priest of the Gufuku-ji at Ushima, through whose good offices he was permitted to stay at the monastery attached to the Senso-ji (Asakusa-dera) at Edo. There, at the beginning of the Genroku period (...

Article

Hongren  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

Chinese painter and Chan Buddhist monk. He is best known by his Buddhist name, Hongren; his secular name was Jiang Tao. Considered one of the Four Great Painter-Monks of the late Ming (1368–1644) period, he in fact reached the height of his artistic activity between ...

Article

Hualin  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1597, in Sanshan (Fujian); died 1667.

Painter.

A Buddhist monk, Hualin left for Japan in 1660, where he became a priest. Many of his landscapes and flower and bamboo paintings are thus to be found in Japan.

Article

Kokan  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1653; died 1717.

Painter.

Kokan, who became the superior at the Hoon-ji temple in Kyoto, studied painting with Eino (1631-1697). He specialised in Buddhist themes as well as humorous subjects verging on caricature.

Article

Kuncan  

Joseph Tsenti Chang and Chu-Tsing Li

Chinese painter and Buddhist monk. He is known as one of the ‘Four Great Monk Painters’ of the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911), along with Shitao or Daoji, Zhu Da and Hongren, and as one of the greatest ‘Individualist’ painters of the 17th century (a group of artists that is always counterposed with the so-called ‘Orthodox’ painters of the 17th century)....

Article

Leh  

Kirit Mankodi

Capital of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Located near the River Indus on an ancient trade route between India, Tibet and China, Leh is notable for a Tibetan Buddhist monastery, known as the Tsemo Gompa, and the Lechen Pelkar palace and fort, all erected under the Namgyel rulers of the 16th–17th centuries. Among the buildings of the Tsemo Gompa is the Temple of the Guardian Deities, built by ...

Article

LI Lin  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Activec.1635.

Born in Siming (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Li Lin was a pupil of Ding Yunpeng (f. 1584-1638). He painted Buddhist figures in black and white, and liked to sign his work Longmian Housheng (Longmian returned to life).

Cologne (Mus. für ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Patricia J. Graham

Temple site in Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is the headquarters of the Ōbaku sect of Zen Buddhism and is important as a centre for the diffusion in Japan of Chinese arts of the Ming period (1368–1644). Many of its original buildings still stand....

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher. He became a major figure in the Ōbaku Zen lineage in Japan. Along with Ingen Ryūki and Mokuan Shōtō, he is extolled as one of the ‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’ (Jap. Ōbaku no sanpitsu), master Zen calligraphers (see also...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher, active in Japan. Along with his disciples Mokuan Shōtō and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, he was extolled as one of the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’), the three principal calligraphers of the Ōbaku Zen school. He was a leading southern Chinese Buddhist master who, not long after the end of the Ming period (...

Article

Sankhu  

Erberto F. Lo Bue

Village 19 km north-east of Kathmandu, in Bagmati Province, Nepal, near the ancient Buddhist monastery, Gum Vihara. The monastery is located on a ridge 3 km north of the village at a site known as Vajrayogini (or Khadgayogini). Gum Vihara is one of the most ancient Buddhist sites mentioned in Lichchhavi inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley, and it may well antedate the Lichchhavi period (...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In ...

Article

Elizabeth Horton Sharf

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in ...

Article

Cecil H. Uyehara

Japanese Shinto–Shingon Buddhist priest, painter and calligrapher. Together with Konoe Nobutada and Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family, §1), he is known as one of the three Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei era’ (1624–44)). He began his religious training at the age of 17 at Mt Otoko, near Kyoto, at the Shinto–Shingon Buddhist sanctuary of Iwashimizu Hachimangu, of which he became abbot in ...