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Chinese, 17th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Chen Xian worked for the Huangbo sect around 1635-1675. He painted many Buddhist figures.


Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born in Jiaxing (Zhejiang).

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yuangong was active at the beginning of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). He later became a Buddhist monk.

London (British Mus.): Hermit in Red Robe on Mountain Ledge (album leaf, signed...


Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1547, in Xiuning (Anhui); died after 1628.

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Ding Yunpeng painted mainly Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of the Tang painters Wu Daozi (active c.720-760) and Li Longmian, notably in his way of outlining with the brush. He was connected with the painter Dong Qichang (...


Stephen Addiss


(b Hijishio, Kanagawa Prefect., 1568; d Lake Hamana, Shizuoka Prefect., 1654).

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He entered the Shingon-sect temple Kansōji at the age of four or five, transferring to the Sōtō-sect Zen temple Chōgenji a few years later. Around the age of 16 he moved to the leading Sōtō temple in eastern Japan, Sōrinji. After completing his Zen training, perhaps in 1596, Fūgai spent two decades on pilgrimage. In 1616 he became abbot of Jōganji in Sagami Province (now part of Kanagawa Prefect.), but after only a few years he gave up his position to live in mountainside caves, which earned him the nickname Ana Fūgai (‘Cave Fūgai’). This practice may have been in emulation of Bodhidharma (Jap. Daruma, the first Zen patriarch), who was reputed to have meditated in front of a wall for nine years; but such rejection of temple life was rare for a 17th-century Japanese monk. While living in the Kamisoga Mountains, Fūgai is said to have made ink paintings of Daruma, which he would hang at the entrance to his cave, so that farmers could leave rice for the monk and take the paintings home. Many such works remain, darkened by incense, in farmhouses of the region. After some years Fūgai moved to a small hut in the village of Manazuru, south of Odawara, where he continued his ink painting and calligraphy. Besides Daruma, he also depicted the wandering monk Hotei (Chin. Budai; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune) and occasionally brushed self-portraits and landscapes in ink on paper....



Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1628, in Gifu Prefecture; died 1695, in Miroku-ji temple, Gifu Prefecture.


Little is known about the birthplace and life of Enku, a Tendai Buddhist monk, except that he travelled the country widely, sculpting on popular demand, and that his works are in fact a form of devotion. The immense amount of work he produced (he vowed to produce 120,000 pieces) stands apart from traditional Buddhist sculpture of the time. His prolific output was fired by a deep faith; he worked with great speed using a billhook and knife, taking into account the veins in the wood in order to respect its true nature. His works exude an undeniable serenity. They are to be found in numerous temples, most particularly in the regions of Mino and Hida (Gifu province) where he often stayed, but also on the northern island of Hokkaido, where he was to be found between ...



Donald F. McCallum

(b Mino Province [now Gifu Prefecture], 1632; d 1695).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist itinerant monk (hijiri). He was active during the early Edo period (1600–1868). He entered the priesthood of the Tendai sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) at an early age, this being one of the few means of advancement within feudal society for individuals of the lower classes. Enkū began sculpting images in the early 1660s for both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in his home province. In the later 1660s he made an important missionary expedition to the Tōhoku region of Honshu and to the northern island of Hokkaido, which had only recently come under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, introducing Buddhism and Buddhist imagery to that still remote island. Thereafter he travelled extensively, carving icons for rural temples and wayside shrines in Honshu, especially in the Kantō and Chūbu regions. He also carved images on living trees on mountain-tops. For more than 300 years his works were little known outside their localities; to local people they were objects of worship, imbued with magical powers to heal and protect....



Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1648, in Kyoto; died 1710.

Sculptor, monk.

After having been a sculptor of Buddhist statues in Kyoto, Genkei became a monk in 1669, at the age of 21, and a disciple of Tetsugen Zenji. He then went on a long preaching tour of Japan during which he conceived the vast project of carving statues of the Rakan (the Arhats, or disciples of the Buddha). He went to Edo (now Tokyo) to seek the assistance of Tetsugyu Osho, a priest of the Gufuku-ji at Ushima, through whose good offices he was permitted to stay at the monastery attached to the Senso-ji (Asakusa-dera) at Edo. There, at the beginning of the Genroku period (...



Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Hung-jen; Jiang Tao; zi Wuzhi, Jianjiang]

(b ?"She xian, Anhui Province, 1610; d She xian, 1664).

Chinese painter and Chan Buddhist monk. He is best known by his Buddhist name, Hongren; his secular name was Jiang Tao. Considered one of the Four Great Painter-Monks of the late Ming (1368–1644) period, he in fact reached the height of his artistic activity between 1651 and 1663, in the early Qing (1644–1911). Hongren is primarily known as the leading master of the Anhui school, as the creator of the distinctive angular landscapes of his mature period and as a man of great personal integrity and filial piety.

Hongren’s birthplace is variously recorded as Xiuning and She xian; he probably grew up at She xian. The Jiang family was well established in the region, but the early death of Hongren’s father brought hardship. Hongren supported his mother in the following years by drawing water and selling firewood; later, he may have earned an income by transcribing old texts and writing. The death of his mother so distressed him that he went into deep mourning, giving up all thought of marriage; he attempted to pay off the funeral debts as quickly as possible so as not to be ‘obliged to others for one’s own sake’....



Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1597, in Sanshan (Fujian); died 1667.


A Buddhist monk, Hualin left for Japan in 1660, where he became a priest. Many of his landscapes and flower and bamboo paintings are thus to be found in Japan.



Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1653; died 1717.


Kokan, who became the superior at the Hoon-ji temple in Kyoto, studied painting with Eino (1631-1697). He specialised in Buddhist themes as well as humorous subjects verging on caricature.



Joseph Tsenti Chang and Chu-Tsing Li

[xing Liu; zi Jieqiu; hao Shixi, Baitu, Can Daoren]

(b Changde, Hunan Province, 1612; d Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 1673).

Chinese painter and Buddhist monk. He is known as one of the ‘Four Great Monk Painters’ of the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911), along with Shitao or Daoji, Zhu Da and Hongren, and as one of the greatest ‘Individualist’ painters of the 17th century (a group of artists that is always counterposed with the so-called ‘Orthodox’ painters of the 17th century).

As a youth he studied the classics and prepared himself for the civil service examinations, at the same time becoming interested in painting and Buddhism. Inspired by a Confucian scholar in his home town who was also a Chan (Jap. Zen) Buddhist, Kuncan decided to dedicate his life to Chan Buddhism; in 1638, to show his determination, he shaved off his hair. Encouraged by his mentor, he travelled to the Jiangnan region, the area south of the Yangzi River, to seek further instruction in Buddhism. While in Nanjing, Kuncan was introduced to the teachings of the famous patriarch Zhuhong (...



Kirit Mankodi

Capital of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Located near the River Indus on an ancient trade route between India, Tibet and China, Leh is notable for a Tibetan Buddhist monastery, known as the Tsemo Gompa, and the Lechen Pelkar palace and fort, all erected under the Namgyel rulers of the 16th–17th centuries. Among the buildings of the Tsemo Gompa is the Temple of the Guardian Deities, built by Tashi Namgyel in the 16th century, which contains images of the fierce protector Mahakala, Vaishravana (one of the four heavenly kings), the Great Goddess and another fierce guardian (yet to be identified). Also in the Tsemo Gompa, the Maitreya Temple contains a celebrated three-storey-high figure of the Future Buddha flanked by the bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Manjushri; the shrine may date to the 16th century, but it has been extensively renovated in recent times. The palace is a ruined nine-storey structure set on a hill north-east of the town; founded by ...


LI Lin  

Chinese, 17th century, male.


Born in Siming (Zhejiang).


Li Lin was a pupil of Ding Yunpeng (f. 1584-1638). He painted Buddhist figures in black and white, and liked to sign his work Longmian Housheng (Longmian returned to life).

Cologne (Mus. für ostasiatische Kunst): ...


Patricia J. Graham

[Mampukuji; Ōbakuzan]

Temple site in Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is the headquarters of the Ōbaku sect of Zen Buddhism and is important as a centre for the diffusion in Japan of Chinese arts of the Ming period (1368–1644). Many of its original buildings still stand.

In the mid-17th century, amid the upheaval following the fall of the Ming dynasty in China, monks of the Linji (Jap. Rinzai) sect of Zen (Chin. Chan) Buddhism from southern China (see Buddhism §III 10.) began emigrating to Japan, settling in Nagasaki, Kyushu, where a large Chinese community had gathered. In Japan they found the Rinzai sect well established, though with different religious orientations. In order to distinguish themselves from the Japanese sect, the Chinese monks called their sect Ōbaku (Chin. Huangbo), after Mt Huangbo in Fujian province, the site of their home temple, Wanfu si.

Yiran (Jap. Itsunen; 1601–68), abbot of Nagasaki’s Chinese temple Kōfukuji, invited the abbot of Wanfu si at Mt Huangbo, Yinyuan Longqi (Jap. ...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Jifei Ruyi; Lin]

(b Fuzhou, Fujian Prov., 1616; d Nagasaki, 1671).

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher. He became a major figure in the Ōbaku Zen lineage in Japan. Along with Ingen Ryūki and Mokuan Shōtō, he is extolled as one of the ‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’ (Jap. Ōbaku no sanpitsu), master Zen calligraphers (see also Japan §VII 2., (iv)). Jifei was ordained at the age of 17 under Feiyin Tongrong (1593–1661), and at 21 he was accepted as a disciple by Ingen, abbot of the Zen temple Wanfusi at Mt Huangbo (Fujian Prov.), where he became a colleague of Mokuan, another outstanding disciple of Ingen. In 1651, after a brush with death by asphyxiation while fighting a forest fire behind the temple had inspired his sudden ‘enlightenment’, Sokuhi received ‘dharma transmission’ (recognition as an heir in the spiritual lineage) from Ingen and the following year was promoted to high monastic office. About this time he became abbot of Chongshengsi on Mt Xuefeng (Fujian Prov.). In late ...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Yinyuan Longqi]

(b Fuqing County, Fujian Province, 1592; d Uji, 1673).

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher, active in Japan. Along with his disciples Mokuan Shōtō and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, he was extolled as one of the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’), the three principal calligraphers of the Ōbaku Zen school. He was a leading southern Chinese Buddhist master who, not long after the end of the Ming period (1368–1644), emigrated to Nagasaki where, in the early 17th century, a community of Chinese merchants had established three Chinese Buddhist temples. In Japan Ingen quickly became a religious figure of national reputation, and was later celebrated as the founding patriarch of the Japanese Ōbaku Zen lineage (see Buddhism §III 10.). A search for his father, who had disappeared when he was five, brought him at the age of 20 to a temple on Mt Putuo (Zhoushan Archipelago, off the coast of Zhejiang Prov.), where, it is recorded, he served tea to the monks. It was not until he was about 28, however, after the death of his mother, that he was able to be ordained as a Buddhist monk at his family temple, Wanfusi, on Mt Huangbo. He trained under the eminent monks Miyun Yuanwu (...



Erberto F. Lo Bue

Village 19 km north-east of Kathmandu, in Bagmati Province, Nepal, near the ancient Buddhist monastery, Gum Vihara. The monastery is located on a ridge 3 km north of the village at a site known as Vajrayogini (or Khadgayogini). Gum Vihara is one of the most ancient Buddhist sites mentioned in Lichchhavi inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley, and it may well antedate the Lichchhavi period (c. ad 300–800). According to tradition Manadeva (reg c. ad 464–505) repaired the monastery, and under his influence a large caitya (stupa) was erected. This may refer to the only monumental stupa at this site, which is now enclosed in a c. 17th-century Newar-style double-roofed temple, surrounded by four stupas of the Lichchhavi period. The enclosure of a stupa of this size is now unique in the Kathmandu Valley and can be related to early Indian Buddhist monasteries with a stupa in the centre of a courtyard lined with cells....


Norihisa Mizuta

[Xin yue; Shōun]

(b Puyang, nr Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov., 1639; d Mito, Ibaragi Prefect., 1695).

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In 1681 the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), hearing of this situation, invited Shin’etsu to his fiefdom, where in 1692 he became founding abbot of Mitsukuni’s temple, Jushōzan Gionji (formerly Tentokuji) in Mito, later the place of his burial. Shin’etsu’s school of Buddhism is known as the Jushō or Shin’etsu school of Sōtō Zen.

Shin’etsu is best known as an artist and true literatus. Together with Dokuryū Shōeki...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Duli Xingyi; Dai Mangong; Tianwai yi xianren]

(b Hangzhou Prefect., Zhejiang Prov., 1596; d Nagasaki, 1672).

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in 1653 accomplished in several disciplines and quickly became a major force in the development of these arts and skills in Japan. Together with Tōkō Shin’etsu, Dokuryū is revered for having introduced techniques and practices of late Ming literati seal-carving to Japan. On his arrival there, Dokuryū became an itinerant scholar and medical specialist, establishing ties with émigré Chinese abbots and Japanese political figures. When the distinguished Chinese prelate Yinyuan Longqi (known in Japan as Ingen Ryūki) arrived in 1654, Dokuryū was ordained as his disciple and received the Buddhist names Dokuryū and Shōeki.

He was Ingen’s scribe from 1655 until 1658, when he took up residence at the Rinzai Zen monastery Heirinji (Saitama Prefect.) under the patronage of the shogunal minister ...


Cecil H. Uyehara

[Takimotobō Shōjō]

(b 1584; d 1639).

Japanese Shinto–Shingon Buddhist priest, painter and calligrapher. Together with Konoe Nobutada and Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family §(1)), he is known as one of the three Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei era’ (1624–44)). He began his religious training at the age of 17 at Mt Otoko, near Kyoto, at the Shinto–Shingon Buddhist sanctuary of Iwashimizu Hachimangu, of which he became abbot in 1628. In 1634 he relinquished his position and in 1637 retired to his residence, the Shōkadō (Pine Flower Hall), at one of the sanctuary’s subtemples, the Takimotobō. He was highly respected by the Regent Konoe Nobuhiro, and by the leading intellectuals, priests and Confucianists of the day, such as Kobori Enshū, Takuan Sōhō, Ishikawa Jōzan and Hayashi Razan (1583–1657). Shōjō studied the Shōren’in calligraphy style (see Japan §VII 2., (iii), (a)), as well as the elegant works by Heian-period (...