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[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Crocket  

John Thomas

[Fr. croc, crochet: ‘hook’]

Decorative device used in Gothic art and architecture, attached to a capital or a gable, an arch, piece of tracery or coping. The term was used in medieval England in the forms crockytt and crockett. English writers of the Gothic Revival period, however, suggested a connection with the crook, noting that some of the earliest English examples take the form of the pastoral crosier, but this is probably a misinterpretation.

Crocket capitals developed during the period of transition from Romanesque to Gothic architecture from the mid-12th century, with small curled, twisted fronds of vegetation projecting from the body of the capital, in a form suggesting the much older use of curved floral decoration in the Corinthian order (see Orders, architectural, §I, 1, (iii)). After c. 1250 the crocket emerged as a curve of foliage that twisted or hooked back, turning the opposite way to the arch or gable out of which it rose, reminding Gwilt of ‘the buds and boughs of trees in the spring season’. In the course of its development, the crocket lost its hook-shape and began to curve upwards rather than downwards, becoming richer and more florid. Thus after ...

Article

Jeanne Sheehy

(b Dublin, Jan 6, 1817; d Dublin, Feb 6, 1882).

Irish architect. He was educated at the Christian Brothers’ School, Dublin, and entered the Figure and Ornament Schools of the Royal Dublin Society in 1834. In 1837 he moved to the Architecture School and in the same year began to exhibit designs at the Royal Hibernian Academy. He was articled to the architect William Farrell (d 1852). He probably spent the years 1843–6 in England, where he came under the influence of A. W. N. Pugin and the Ecclesiological movement. By 1846 he was back in Ireland and embarked on his first major commission, St Kevin’s, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, which he described as ‘the first uncompromisingly true church of the old type erected in the archdiocese of Dublin’. It followed Ecclesiological recommendations for a small rural church, with a nave and carefully differentiated chancel, a bell cote, south porch and a sacristy, and was built of local granite with limestone dressings. He planned a richly decorated interior, with rood screen, sedilia and founder’s tomb, stained glass, encaustic tiles and stencilled walls, but little of this was achieved. St Kevin’s launched McCarthy on a successful career. His religion was no disadvantage, as the Catholic church began a vigorous building campaign. McCarthy was a skilled self-publicist, writing about the new architecture in Duffy’s ...