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Article

‛Ali  

S. J. Vernoit

[‛Alī; Ḥusayn ‛Alī]

(fl c. 1800–20).

Persian enamel painter. All of his work is associated with the patronage of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834). ‛Ali signed his work with the title ghulām khānazād (‘slave born in the household’) signifying ‘artist in the royal service’. A jewelled nephrite dish (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus., Samml. Plastik & Kstgew., M3223) presented in 1819 by the Persian ambassador Abu’l-Hassan Khan to the Austrian emperor Francis I (reg 1792–1835) has a central gold plaque enamelled with a full-length portrait of Fath ‛Ali Shah (dated 1817–18), inspired by Mihr ‛Alis life-size oil portrait (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.). Other objects enamelled by ‛Ali include an oval mirror with a carved jade handle (Tehran, Bank Markazi, Crown Jewels Col.); on the back is an enamel portrait of Fath ‛Ali Shah seated within a floral frame, probably the finest painted enamel in the collection (see Islamic art, §viii, 3...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1843; d 1901).

Norwegian silversmith. Founder of the Oslo company of silversmiths now known as David-Andersen. In 1876 Andersen established a workshop and retail shop in Christiania (Oslo). His early work, mostly in 830 silver, uses traditional Nordic motifs. David’s son Arthur (1875–1970), who became the principal designer for the firm and inherited it in ...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 3 January 1854, in Antwerp; died 1930.

Painter. History painting, religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Anthony was the son of a silversmith and studied under L. Hendricx, a painter of historical subjects. His altar panel with the Story of St Barbara...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1828, in London; died 4 December 1905.

Sculptor, engraver, metal worker, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures. Busts.

Henry Armstead studied at the Royal Academy in London and became a member of the Academy in 1875. He exhibited a large number of busts and reliefs ...

Article

Baqir  

[Bāqir; Muhammad Baqir; Muḥammad Bāqir]

(fl c. 1800–30).

Persian painter in enamels. All of his known work was made for the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834). Like ‛Ali, he signed his work with the title ghulām khānazād (‘slave born in the household’), signifying ‘artist in the royal service’. Baqir painted a fine gold bowl and cover, saucer and spoon, which is enamelled with astrological figures and a poetic dedication to Fath ‛Ali Shah (priv. col., see Robinson, 1991, fig.). Several other objects enamelled by Baqir, such as an oval snuff-box with a portrait of the seated King and a teapot with busts of Fath ‛Ali Shah and floral swags and a dedication to the King, are part of the Iranian crown jewels (Tehran, Bank Markazi, Crown Jewels Col.). His style is similar to that of ‛Ali and is notable for its delicate execution and brilliant colour (see Islamic art, §VIII, 3). Baqir is probably the Muhammad Baqir who, together with ...

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

Article

Gordon Campbell

American metalwork company established in Philadelphia in 1810 by Christian Cornelius, a silversmith who had emigrated from the Netherlands in 1783. He soon turned to the casting of bronze, and by 1825 he had become a lamp manufacturer. The company passed to Cornelius’s son Robert (1809–93), under whose management it became an important lighting business. The company made lamps and chandeliers, often finished in gold lacquer; it also made candlesticks, including the earliest documented American brass candlestick. The best known product of the company was the ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 February 1865, in Munich; died 1954.

Painter, illustrator, engraver, medallist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

After doing an apprenticeship with an engraver Maximilian Dasio entered the Munich academy in 1884, where he studied under Heterich and W. von Diez. Following the success of his sets for the Deutsches Theater, he obtained a scholarship which enabled him to stay in Rome. On his return to Munich he became a teacher at the Damenakademie from ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1816, in Viterbo (Lazio); died 1 June 1892, in Florence.

Sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects.

Pio Fedi started out as an apprentice goldsmith in Florence, then became a copper engraver in Vienna. He returned to Florence and entered the academy, where he studied sculpture. He made his debut in Rome and produced several works that established his reputation, notably ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 July 1873, in Neuhaus; died 1948, in Dresden.

Sculptor, medallist. Religious subjects, figures, animals. Funerary monuments, designs (porcelain).

Art Deco.

Max Hermann Fritz was a student of Lorenz Hutschenreuther, and was active in Dresden from 1898. He carried out numerous sculptures for Hartau Church (including a ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1862, in Birmingham; died 4 June 1928.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, worker in precious metals, designer. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits. Jewellery.

Arts and Crafts.

Arthur Joseph Gaskin studied at the Birmingham School of Art, where he later taught. He was a member of the Arts and Crafts movement founded by William Morris, whose aim was to revitalise the decorative arts. From 1899, together with his wife Georgina Cave France, he created gold and silver jewellery, sometimes decorated with enamel. In 1902, he replaced R. Catterson Smith as director of the Birmingham School of Jewellery. He exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy in London in 1889 and 1890 and jewellery at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 18 October 1881, in Vienna; died 1955 or 1956.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, portraits. Monuments, medals.

Anton Grath attended the arts and crafts school and the art academy in Vienna. He was active in Berlin, Zurich, Moscow and Olmütz (now Olomouc, Czech Republic). His religious subjects include ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 October 1872, in Pforzheim; died 8 June 1943, in Jugenheim.

Sculptor (bronze), draughtsman, painter, engraver (wood), graphic designer. Religious subjects, portraits. Medals.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Daniel Greiner had been a pastor, bur he decided, after a conflict with the authorities in his parish of Schotten, to turn to art instead. He trained in Paris, then at the Bildhauerschule (school of sculpture) in Berlin. In ...

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

German family of artists. Christian Wilhelm Kolbe (c. 1715–1800) lived in Berlin where he made embroideries worked in gold thread; his brother Johann Diederich Kolbe (d 1786) was a goldsmith. Christian Wilhelm’s wife came from a Huguenot family, and their two sons Christian Friedrich Kolbe (b 1758), who was an embroiderer working in gold thread, and (1) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (i) grew up in an atmosphere steeped in French culture. Carl Wilhelm’s son was (2) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (ii), the most important representative of the Romantic history painting movement in Berlin, and a relation by marriage to Daniel Chodowiecki, who influenced his career. Johann Diederich’s son, Heinrich Christian Kolbe (1771–1836), was a painter in Düsseldorf, whose realistic portraits were executed in a Neo-classical style that he alone employed after the appointment of Wilhelm Schadow as Director of the Staatliche Kunstakademie in 1826...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 9 November 1866, in Niedersedlitz, near Dresden; died 16 October 1937, in Berlin.

Sculptor (including bronze). Religious subjects, figures. Busts, statues, medals.

Arthur Lewin-Funcke studied at the Königliche Akademische Hochschule für Bildenden Künste, Berlin, under Ernst Herter, Gerhard Janensch and Albert Wolff ...

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 November 1859, in Baden, near Vienna; died 9 April 1925, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, medallist, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Johannes Mayerhofer studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and worked mainly on decorations for churches....

Article

Glenny Alfsen

(b Kongsberg, July 3, 1820; d Christiania [now Oslo], May 5, 1886).

Norwegian sculptor. He worked first as an apprentice goldsmith in Christiania, and then studied under Herman Wilhelm Bissen from 1840 to 1851 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. Here he adopted a conservative, late classical style, inspired by the art and literature of Denmark’s golden age. He lived in Rome between 1851 and 1860 and became familiar with the works of Classical and Renaissance masters. This experience increased his self-doubt, and he later became harshly self-critical. A font reflecting his admiration for Berthel Thorvaldsen is Middelthun’s only great work from this period (plaster, 1859; marble, 1865; Oslo, Trefoldighetskirken). He returned to Norway in 1860 and executed a series of busts, which established him as Norway’s leading portrait sculptor. His bust of the poet Johan Sebastian Welhaven (plaster, 1861; Oslo, Ubib.; marble, 1865; Oslo, N.G.), one of the most important examples of Norwegian portrait sculpture, is herm-like in form and, with its sense of classical balance and harmony, embodies the poet’s ideals. Middelthun’s later head-and-shoulders bust of the composer ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 August 1862, in Detroit (Michigan), USA, to English parents; died 23 February 1943, in Tunbridge Wells.

Painter, sculptor, worker in precious metals. Mythological subjects, religious subjects. Monuments, funerary monuments.

William Ernest Reynolds-Stephens studied in England and Germany, and later at the Royal Academy Schools, where he won sculpture and painting prizes in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1855, in Paris; died 18 January 1922, in Paris.

Sculptor, medallist, potter, engraver. Religious, allegorical and mythological subjects, nudes. Statues, busts, statuettes.

Symbolism.

Pierre Roche studied with Alfred Roll at the Académie Julian from 1873 to 1878 and in ...