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Andrew John Martin

(b Bologna, 1627; d after 1687).

Italian architect. His first known work is in connection with the church of S Bartolomeo (consecrated 1664) in Bologna; he completed this for the Theatines to the designs, which he modified, of Giovanni Battista Falcetti (1580–1629). His masterpiece is the church of St Kajetan in Munich, which was commissioned by Adelaide Henrietta of Savoy (1636–76), wife of Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, in thanksgiving for the long-awaited birth in 1662 of the heir to the throne, Maximilian II Emmanuel. When her initial attempt to employ Guarino Guarini failed, Adelaide Henrietta approached Barelli, who submitted his first scheme in Munich in October 1662 and was awarded the commission. Six months later he presented a second set of designs; in April 1663 the foundation stone was laid. The building, which faces the Residenz, was designed to fulfil several functions: it served as a church for the Theatines and as a sacred ceremonial assembly hall for the court, and it housed the Wittelsbach family sepulchre. One of the terms of the commission was that Barelli should observe the proportions of the mother church of the Theatines, S Andrea della Valle (...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....


Jean-Pierre Babelon

(b Vic-sur-Seille, Moselle, 1588 or 1591; d Agde, Hérault, Oct 29, 1644).

French Jesuit priest and architect. Entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in 1611, he studied in Rouen and La Flèche, was ordained a priest in 1621 and studied theology in Paris (1621–2). He had also taught grammar at Rennes (1615–18) and mathematics at La Flèche (1618–21). He worked first as an architect at the Jesuit college in Rouen, where from 1622 to 1629 he was praefectus fabricae; then as architectus at the college in Rennes, where he supervised the building works; at the college of Orléans, for which he provided plans in 1632; and, above all, at the Jesuit church in Paris, St Louis (now St Paul–St Louis). In plans for the latter he found himself in competition with Etienne Martellange. Both sets of plans were submitted to Rome; those by Martellange were preferred, and he began work on the church in ...


António Filipe Pimentel

Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son Carlos Baptista Garbo (d Mafra, 1725) was trained in the same skills of masonry at São Antão, and he also became a designer of altarpieces. The high altar with marble mosaic for the old Jesuit church, now the seminary, Santarém, was designed by Carlos Baptista along 17th-century lines and made in 1713 in the workshops of São Antão. It was here that his son António Baptista Garbo (b Lisbon, 1692; d ?Lisbon) was trained and also worked in the service of the Jesuits.

The ability of the Garbo family is most visible at Mafra, where Carlos Baptista superintended the construction of the vast palace, church and convent, following the plans of ...


Richard Bösel

(b Savona, May 1, 1583; d Rome, July 23, 1654).

Italian priest, architect and mathematician. He was born into an established Savonese noble family but joined the Jesuit Order in Rome at the age of 17, taking his vows in 1618. As early as 1616 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, a position he held with interruptions until 1627. Although he soon earned the highest respect and engaged in discussions with Galileo Galilei on his theories about the nature of comets, he is best known for his achievements in the field of architecture. He may be considered the most important Jesuit architect of the first half of the 17th century.

Grassi seems to have come to the profession by way of architectural theory: in 1612 he was instructed by his Order to establish an academy to train Jesuit architects. This institution seems to have been short-lived, if it existed at all. From 1617 to 1624 and again from ...


Alice Dugdale

[Fra Francesco]

(b Oppido Lucano, Calabria, 1543; d Naples, Aug 1, 1613).

Italian architect. He joined the Theatine Order in Naples in 1574. His first major building was the church of S Paolo Maggiore, Naples (1581–1603). Its nave arcades give a strong sense of movement, with arches of alternating height opening into domed or vaulted bays. In 1588, as presumably the most eminent Theatine architect, he was summoned to Rome to design the Order’s new church of S Andrea della Valle. Because of the influence of Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo (d 1603), he was obliged to submit his designs to Giacomo della Porta for approval; this leaves the evolution of the design uncertain, especially as della Porta left soon after the foundation stone was laid, while Grimaldi remained in Rome until 1598. During this time he also visited Lecce, where he worked on the church of S Irene (1588–1639). Grimaldi’s first major commission on his return to Naples was to build S Maria degli Angeli (begun ...


Peter Stein

(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).

Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.

Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...


J.-P. Esther

(b Antwerp, June 1601; d Brussels, March 4, 1690).

Flemish architect. He joined the Jesuits in 1617 and went to school in Antwerp from 1619 to 1621, at which time the church of St Carolus Borromeus was being built after the design of Franciscus Aguilonius and Peter Huyssens. Initially, Hesius came to prominence as a preacher and an important figure in religious politics, and he did not become active as an architect until he was nearly 50. During the third quarter of the 17th century he was his order’s most important architectural adviser. The plans for St Michielskerk, Leuven, one of the most important examples of Flemish Baroque architecture, have been attributed to him and date from 1650. They show the influence of Vitruvius (known in the Netherlands through the translations of Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Sebastiano Serlio), as well as the influence of illustrations by Jean Maggius. The design is characterized principally by a high lantern tower with a dome above the junction of transept and nave. The church, completed in ...


Frans Baudouin

(b Bruges, June 6, 1577; d Bruges, June 6, 1637).

Flemish architect. The son of a master mason in Bruges, he learnt the same profession there. He joined the Jesuits as a friar in 1597. From 1606 to 1613 he made designs for the church and other buildings of the Jesuit College in Maastricht; he also supervised the construction of the church (converted into a theatre in the 18th century), which was conceived in a wholly traditional Flemish Renaissance style. In 1613 he was sent to Antwerp, where he became assistant to the rector, Franciscus Aguilonius, who had already made the first designs for the city’s Jesuit church (now St Carolus Borromeus). Huyssens took over from Aguilonius after the latter’s death in 1617; apart from the two side-chapels, added after 1622, the church was finished in 1621. From the beginning Rubens had taken part in its conception, and his close collaboration with Huyssens produced a church in which Baroque forms were used with an opulence unprecedented in the Netherlands. Even before this church was completed, Huyssens was asked by his superiors to design two others, the first being in Bruges in ...


Helen M. Hills

(b Licata, May 8, 1628; d Palermo, May 5, 1700).

Italian architect. Described as an ‘architectus et sculptor’, he joined the Jesuit novitiate in Palermo in November 1671. He then worked as an architect for the Jesuits at Sciacca and Marsala (c. 1674) and the Jesuit colleges at Termini Imerese (c. 1679) and Mazara del Vallo (c. 1682). His church of S Francesco Saverio (1684–1709), Palermo, has four hexagonal chapels inserted between the arms of a Greek cross. The plan probably reflects the church designs of Guarino Guarini (ii), which Italia must have seen when he was in Messina in 1672. The chapels, with Doric columns in the style of Jacopo Vignola, rise through two storeys and open on to the central space through an arcade. The triglyphs of the frieze bulge forward under the projecting curve of the cornice and become consoles, as if supporting a balcony. The upper parts of the campanile’s exterior recall the bell-towers of the Chiesa Madre (begun ...


Humberto Rodríguez-Camilloni

(b 1617; d Lima, 1696).

Peruvian architect. He was a friar of the Dominican order in Lima and one of the most active architects in Peru during the second half of the 17th century. His earliest known work was a new plan (1643) for the cathedral at Trujillo, on the north coast. However, all his known works from 1659 were in Lima: that year he signed a contract to repair the water system in the main cloister of the convent of Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, and in 1663 the Sagrario was begun to his designs on the Plaza de Armas. Following the earthquake of 1678, Maroto took charge of the reconstruction of the transept of S Domingo and designed a new dome using quincha, a light construction of plastered reeds on a timber frame, an anti-seismic system first used in Peru in 1657 by Constantino de Vasconcelos. Maroto also rebuilt (1678–81...


(b Milan, 1565; d Rome, 1635).

Italian architect. He came from a distinguished Milanese family, and he was educated as a humanist scholar; Mazenta entered the Barnabite Order in 1591, becoming General in 1612, a post he held for five years. The Order’s extensive building programme took Mazenta to various parts of Italy, but his most important works were in Bologna in the first quarter of the 17th century; his role in later projects, however, seems to have been only advisory. Mazenta designed three churches in Bologna: S Salvatore, S Pietro and S Paolo. S Salvatore was completed to Mazenta’s design of 1605 by Tommaso Martelli (fl 1575–1617) in 1623. The plan appears to be based on that of Il Gesù (1568), Rome, by Jacopo Vignola, although Mazenta cited the Baths of Diocletian, restored by Michelangelo in 1561 as S Maria degli Angeli, as the source of the free-standing interior columns. The nave bays, with their side chapels, are of unequal length; the longer, central bay is groin-vaulted. This, together with the tall arches to the side chapels, creates a transeptal effect in the nave, so that the impression conveyed is of a compact Greek-cross unit, with the crossing and sanctuary, both without columns, as an addition; early drawings show this clearly. The interior remains monochromatic as originally designed, spared the addition of decoration common to early Baroque churches. The façade was also based on Il Gesù, but the unadorned brick wall surface, with the entrance portal unconstrained within the architectonic frame, shows north Italian tendencies. S Salvatore was influential for later Baroque churches. Mazenta’s other two Bolognese churches were less robustly articulated. In his design of ...


Ulrich Knapp


(b Au im Bregenzerwald, May 15, 1656; d Einsiedeln, Aug 26, 1723).

German architect. He served his apprenticeship with Christian Thumb, completing it in 1673. In 1674 he began to work as a mason under Johann Georg Kuen (1642–91) on the construction of the new monks’ choir at the Benedictine abbey church at Einsiedeln. In 1682 he was admitted as a lay brother there and assumed the religious name of Caspar. He attained the grade of building expert and abbey architect, working as an adviser or architect for Einsiedeln and many other Benedictine abbeys in Switzerland and south Germany. He was largely self-taught in architectural theory and history, but his designs, especially those for Einsiedeln Abbey, bear witness to his knowledge of French and Italian architectural treatises, such as Augustin-Charles d’Aviler’s Cours d’architecture (Paris, 1693) and Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (Rome, 1693–1700). Moreover, numerous drawings by Moosbrugger survive (Lucerne, Burgerbib.), copied from Italian architectural treatises and engravings, for example, Sebastiano Serlio’s treatise on architecture, the ...


José María Peña and Liliana Herrera

(b Seville, 1699; d ?Buenos Aires, 1784).

Spanish architect, active in Argentina. In 1741 he joined the Franciscan Order in Buenos Aires. When he took his vows it was noted that he was a ‘mason–architect’, and he worked in this capacity in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Salta. From 1730 he designed the vaulting for S Francisco, Buenos Aires, following the plans of the original architect Andrea Bianchi, who had begun it c. 1724. The dome (1752) of Córdoba Cathedral is attributed to Muñoz. As has been noted, it is a majestic cupola reminiscent of those of Toro Cathedral in Spain or the Old Cathedral in Salamanca (Spain). Its corner turrets are designed in the Romanesque style, although its skilful interplay of curves and counter-curves, onion-shaped crown, and base strengthened by a balustered ring are derived from Piedmontese Baroque (Gallardo). In 1754 Muñoz was involved in the construction of S Roque Chapel, Buenos Aires, designed by ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

[Nuvola, Vincenzo de]

(b Naples, 1570; d Naples, ?1636–7).

Italian architect and Dominican friar. He was active in Naples as an ecclesiastical architect after his training in the principles of Renaissance architecture, which was complemented by a study tour through Italy. His scheme for S Maria della Sanità (1602–13), Naples, takes its place within the context of a number of interrelated churches begun in Italy between 1584 and 1612, the layouts of which are all influenced by the centralized plan of St Peter’s, Rome. S Maria della Sanità has a Greek-cross plan inscribed on the diagonals of a square, with a large central dome covered with multicoloured ceramic tiles, and 12 lesser domes distributed between the triangular zones created by the projection of the transepts. Beside this church Fra Nuvolo built a bell-tower (1614) with superimposed orders, terminating in an octagon, crowned by a small dome with the profile of a dolphin’s back, a sacristy (...


(b 1667; d Sønderborg, April 27, 1732).

German architect and administrator, active in Denmark. He was officially attached to the Danish court from 1687 and was sent by King Christian V (reg 1670–99) on a study trip to Italy and France in 1698 to perfect his knowledge of architecture, with the promise of being appointed Director of Works on his return. He was appointed to the position in 1705 and thereby became director of all building activity in Denmark. In 1706 he was appointed Marshal of the Court. During von Platen’s period in office a series of outstanding public buildings was erected in Copenhagen to designs by architects who worked under von Platen, including Johan Conrad Ernst (1666–1750), Ernst Brandenburger (d 1713) and Christoph Marselis (fl 1704–25). It is not possible to determine precisely von Platen’s involvement in these buildings, which are all expressions of the interest of King Frederick IV (...


Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...


Teresa Gisbert

(b Baar region, Switzerland, Sept 26, 1694; d March 1772).

Swiss architect and musician, active in Bolivia. He entered the Jesuit Order and in 1730 was sent to join the Jesuit missions to the indigenous Chiquito peoples of eastern Bolivia, in the Chaco rainforests bordering Brazil and Paraguay. In 1731 he organized the craft workshops in the mission of S Javier and began the construction of the church there. Like all the churches in that region, it is a timber structure with a rectangular ground-plan and a pitched roof. The plan is organized on the basis of five rows of timber columns, with the three central rows dividing the internal space into two aisles and the outer rows defining the enclosing walls and supporting the widely overhanging eaves. These churches were based on ancient Greek models and were adapted to the humid climate and forested nature of the region. Schmid also constructed the churches at S Rafael (1749–53) and Concepción (...


Klára Garas

(b Innsbruck, Dec 25, 1673; d Neisse [Nysa, Poland], Nov 4, 1731).

Austrian architect and painter. In 1695 he became a lay brother of the Jesuit Order in Vienna. Between 1702 and 1709 he was the pupil of Andrea Pozzo, with whom he collaborated on the interior decoration of the Liechtenstein summer palace in Vienna (1705). In 1709–10 he completed the renovation of the church of St Anne in Vienna and of the refectory in the Clementinum, a Jesuit college in Prague; both were projects that had been begun by Pozzo. Between 1712 and 1715 Tausch produced his principal work, the decoration of the former Jesuit church at Trencsén (Trenčín, Slovakia) with illusionistic perspective ceiling paintings depicting the Glorification of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier. Between 1713 and 1719 he produced many paintings and designs for Jesuit church interiors in Hungary, Prague and Germany (Passau). After a journey to Rome (1720), and his modification and decoration of the Jesuit church of S Ignazio at Gorizia (...


Michael Ellul

Maltese family of silversmiths, architects and designers. The first recorded family member is Carlo Troisi (fl 1697–1736), followed by Andrea Troisi (fl 1750), Pietro Paolo Troisi (?1700–50) and Massimiliano Troisi (fl 1794). A silver sugar bowl (1775–97; London, Mus. Order St John) is attributed to Aloisio Troisi, probably a member of the same family. During the 17th and 18th centuries various members of the Troisi family filled the post of Master of the Mint of the Order of St John of the Knights Hospitaller. The Mint was established in Valletta, Malta, in 1566. The best-known Troisi silversmith is Pietro Paolo, who was also an architect. His best work is the Altar of Repose, which he designed for Mdina Cathedral, and which was constructed by the Maltese painter Francesco Vincenzo Zahra in 1750. It is a magnificent Baroque scenographic creation in wood executed in a masterful ...