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Australian, 19th century, male.

Born 30 June 1875, at Kew, Melbourne; died 18 September 1963, in Gordon.

Painter, stained-glass artist. Portraits.

Norman St Clair Carter was apprenticed to a stained-glass maker from 1890 to 1894. He took night classes under Frederick McCubbin and L. Bernard Hall at the National Gallery School in Melbourne, and later studied under Emmanuel Phillips Fox. He moved to Sydney in ...


Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 October 1928, in Brunswick, near Melbourne.

Painter (mixed media), muralist, stained glass painter.

Leonard French studied signwriting at Melbourne Technical College from 1944 to 1947. He worked his way through London, Ireland, and Belgium between 1949 and 1951, studying as he went. In ...


Christine Clark

(b Brunswick, Melbourne, Oct 10, 1928).

Australian painter and designer. With encouragement from Victor Greenhalgh, he attended evening classes at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology from 1944 to 1947. He studied from 1949 to 1951 in England, Belgium and Ireland where his interest in Celtic art increased. With the aid of a travelling scholarship in 1960–61, he studied the Eastern art of Asia, and in 1965 went to the USA on the Harkness Fellowship. His travels were often responsible for his series’ themes. Literary images and social injustices were frequently used, as in Iliad (1952), Edmund Campion series (1963), the Death of a Revolution (on South America, 1974–6), and South African-inspired works in the mid-1980s. French carefully constructed his images which are based on formal patterns and shapes, for example in Death and Transfiguration (1957; Melbourne, Joseph Brown Gal.). Using simple, easily recognizable symbols, he portrayed a powerful bluntness and honesty. After studying enamelling techniques in the 1960s, French’s paintings became known for their thick glowing layers of enamel on different textual levels, at times with gold leaf added. Apart from paintings and murals, he was known for his stained glass projects, mosaics, tapestries, etchings and lithographs. He was commissioned by the ...


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Mildura, Victoria, Jan 30, 1927; d 1999).

Australian painter, printmaker, teacher and glass artist. He was first employed as an apprentice by the prominent stained glass firm Brooks, Robinson & Co. in Melbourne. During his ten-year association with this firm, he undertook part-time studies in painting and drawing at various Melbourne art institutes, including the Art School attached to the National Gallery of Victoria and the Technical College, and at the privately run George Bell School, which at the time presented a more progressive approach to the subject than was espoused at the larger institutes. With his training Gleeson was well-placed to investigate the innovative use of glass as a medium for artistic expression. In line with the notion of truth to material, he virtually abandoned the traditional process of staining glass in favour of a method of creating abstract compositions by overlaying, fusing and acid-etching sheets of coloured glass. Using these techniques he was able to achieve a subtle tonal range. Although Gleeson was awarded an impressive sequence of window commissions including the cycles for the Burwood Presbyterian church, Victoria (...