1-8 of 8 results  for:

  • Gothic Revival and Gothick x
  • Oceanic/Australian Art x
  • Twentieth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

David Dolan

Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.

They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....

Article

John W. F. Cattell

(b Walsden, Lancs, Jan 7, 1856; d Wellington, New Zealand, Aug 13, 1952).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The son of a Church of England clergyman, he worked for the church architects Edmund Evan Scott (fl 1851; d 1895) in Brighton and Robert Jewell Withers (1823–94) in London before emigrating to New Zealand, settling in Wanganui in 1877. He moved to Wellington in 1883 and was appointed architect to the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church. According to his obituary he designed more than 100 churches mostly in the southern half of the North Island.

Clere continued the tradition of wooden Gothic Revival churches clad with vertical boarding established by Frederick Thatcher and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort; his buildings are successful more for their simplicity of design and fine proportioning than for their ecclesiological correctness. Working in a seismically unstable country, he was mindful of the necessity for structural strength in his buildings and experimented with the use of reinforced concrete for larger churches, such as St Matthew’s Anglican Church, Hastings (begun ...

Article

John Maidment

(b Huddersfield, Oct 2, 1858; d Rowella, Tasmania, May 28, 1945).

Australian architect of English birth. He studied at the Kendal School of Art, Cumberland, and the Lambeth School of Art, London; he was articled in Kendal and he worked for the church architect James Cubitt, whose writings influenced him. He travelled widely in Europe, and in a national competition (1883) for art schools he won the gold medal for his cathedral drawings. In 1883 he emigrated to Tasmania and first worked for the Tasmanian Government in Hobart; he was later in partnership in Launceston successively with L. G. Corrie, W. H. Dunning, A. H. Masters, R. F. Ricards, F. J. Heyward and, in Melbourne, with Louis R. Williams from 1913 to 1920. North’s early work shows the influence of R. Norman Shaw and William Burges in the adoption of massive forms, Queen Anne style and French detailing; the Anglo-Dutch idiom of the Launceston Post Office (c. 1885–9...

Article

Miles Lewis

(b Launceston, Tasmania, 1845; d Melbourne, Nov 25, 1917).

Australian architect. He served articles with the Tasmanian architect Henry Hunter, then undertook unspecified studies in London and worked for Matthew Digby Wyatt, before returning to Australia in 1868. He established a practice in Ballarat, where he was appointed Borough Architect in 1870. He won a competition for the design of the Congregational Church in Victoria Parade, Melbourne (1871–2; destr.), and then designed the Wesleyan Church in Brunswick (1872). It was the first important example of his High Victorian polychrome style characterized by the brown brickwork with dressings and patterns of cream and warm red, serrated around the heads of openings. In common with his work in stone, it used paired and multiple Gothic lights, decorated tracery, stone corbels to widen the bases of gables in porches and bellcotes, heavily moulded arches carried on slim shafts, octagonal towers and spires, and pierced quatrefoil parapets.

Having moved to Melbourne, Oakden entered into partnership with ...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(b Lower Hutt, Sept 26, 1847; d Dunedin, Dec 10, 1918).

New Zealand architect. He was educated at Roman Catholic schools in England and France and was articled (1864–9) to the shipbuilder and engineer Joseph Samuda (1813–85) in London, after which he worked for Daniel Cubitt Nichols (fl 1856–91). In 1872 he returned to New Zealand as an engineer on railway construction, establishing his own practice in Dunedin in 1875. He carried out a wide range of commercial, domestic and engineering works, but his major architectural commissions came from the Roman Catholic Church. His first important work was the Dominican Priory (1877), Dunedin. Its simplified, angular Gothic forms reveal its monolithic concrete construction. More conventional in form, St Joseph’s Cathedral (begun 1879), Dunedin, is French 13th-century Gothic in style. Petre employed the Gothic style for small parish churches but increasingly favoured classical basilican plans for larger churches. The basilica of the Sacred Heart (...

Article

George Tibbits

(b Melbourne, June 4, 1855; d Melbourne, May 25, 1918).

Australian architect and politician. He began his architectural practice in 1879, having served articles from 1875 with George Browne in Melbourne. His early success came from competitions for commercial buildings in prestigious locations. A well-known design from this early period is Gordon House (1883), Little Bourke Street, Melbourne, created for the Improved Dwellings and Lodging House Company. His interest in theatre, matched with his skill in design, also drew important commissions of which the most notable surviving example is the decorative French Second Empire style Princess Theatre (1886), Melbourne. In the later 1880s his practice flourished, during which time Pitt created a collection of striking Gothic Revival office buildings in Melbourne: Stock Exchange (1888), Collins Street; Coin Exchange (1889), Queens Street; Olderfleet (1889), Collins Street; Rialto (1890–91), Collins Street. As a testament to his inventive skill as a designer, his Federal Coffee Palace (...

Article

John W. F. Cattell

(b Glasgow, Aug 23, 1824; d Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 23, 1907).

Scottish architect, active in New Zealand. He was employed as Clerk of Works to David Bryce in Edinburgh before travelling to Victoria, Australia, in 1851 where he practised as an architect in the gold-digging townships. He moved to San Francisco in 1861 and over a ten-year period designed many buildings there, none of which is known to have survived. Overwork following the earthquake of 1868 led to a breakdown in his health and his emigration to New Zealand in the early 1870s. He settled in Wellington, establishing an extensive practice there. At the time of his arrival the use of brick for building construction was eschewed by that city’s inhabitants who favoured earthquake-resistant wooden structures. Turnbull introduced methods of strengthening brick buildings learnt in San Francisco and was instrumental in transforming Wellington into a brick city of ornate public and commercial buildings in a variety of classical styles.

Turnbull was a pragmatic colonial architect whose work shows a greater concern for practical considerations than for stylistic fidelity. His architecture is representative of the Scottish classical tradition in contrast to the Gothic bias evident in the work of most of his English-trained contemporaries. However, two of his finest surviving Wellington buildings are in the Gothic Revival style. These are the wooden St John’s Presbyterian Church (...

Article

John Maidment

(b Hobart, April 21, 1890; d Brighton, Victoria, March 27, 1980).

Australian architect . Articled initially to Frank Heyward in Hobart in 1910, he transferred to Alexander North in Launceston, with whom he was in partnership in Melbourne between 1913–20. Williams absorbed important elements of North’s Arts and Crafts philosophy, particularly the patronage of local craft workers, yet was given freedom to develop a personal style. Williams’s early church designs thus have distinctive elements including obliquely placed towers, triangular buttressing and bellcotes surmounted by spikes; their planning influenced by Ralph Adams Cram’s Church Building. Williams’s work further developed in the 1920s and 1930s when he became Australia’s most sought-after church architect, with work in all Australian states; he was Diocesan Architect at the dioceses of Bathurst and Grafton. His preferred material was brick with occasional use of reinforced concrete. Williams developed a clearly identifiable free Gothic synthesis, characterized by simplicity, freedom from period references and unencumbered wall surfaces, comparable with British contemporaries such as Sir Edward Maufe. His work often included a tower and his façades often incorporated a masonry cross and tiled roofs. His interiors were notable for their generous planning, careful lighting and furniture of impeccable design, while also making provision for climatic extremes, such as ventilating panels and shading from direct sunlight....