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Article

(b Dundee, Aug 31, 1898; d London, April 14, 1974).

British art historian, scholar, and teacher. Boase studied history at Magdalen College, Oxford before teaching at Hertford College, Oxford from 1922 to 1937. As an historian his appointment as Director of the Courtauld Institute of Art and Professor of the History of Art in 1937 was controversial, but in this role he helped to establish the history of art as an undergraduate degree course. His time at the Courtauld was disrupted by World War II, and he worked to revive the Institute in its aftermath. Boase brought his historical training to his writing on art. His interests were extremely wide-ranging and he published on subjects as diverse as ‘The Arts in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’ and ‘Illustrations of Shakespeare’s Plays in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’. Both these articles were among his regular contributions to the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. In addition to his articles on medieval art, in ...

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(b Le Mans, Nov 1, 1908; d Brisbane, Australia, July 7, 1995).

French architectural historian, active also in America. Bony was educated at the Sorbonne, receiving his agregation in geography and history in 1933. In 1935, converted to art history by Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, he travelled to England under a research grant from the Sorbonne, after which time he became Assistant Master in French at Eton College (1937–9 and 1945–6). He returned to France in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant in World War II in the French Army, was taken as a prisoner of war and spent the years 1940–43 in an internment camp in Germany. After the war he returned to England, first to Eton, then as Lecturer in the History of Art at the French Institute in London (1946–61), Visiting Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art (1948–58), and Slade Professor of Fine Art at St John’s College, Cambridge (1958–61). From 1961 to 1962...

Article

Stephen Murray

(b New York, Jan 13, 1927; d New York, Nov 26, 1973).

American scholar of Gothic architecture. He majored in classics at Yale University and served in the US Army in Europe (1945–6), where he encountered the great monuments of Gothic architecture. He completed his doctoral degree at Yale, also studying medieval architecture and archaeology at the Ecole des Chartes and the Institut d’Art et Archéologie in Paris, and engaging in excavations at Bourges Cathedral (1950–52). His doctoral dissertation on Bourges was directed by Sumner McKnight Crosby.

Branner taught for a year at Yale (1952) before accepting a teaching position at the University of Kansas (1954). Between 1957 and his death he taught in the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, New York, with a brief spell at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. As a teacher, Robert Branner energized the study of medieval art in a vital and lasting way.

Although he is remembered principally as a most prolific scholar of Gothic architecture, Branner’s considerable list of publications includes topics in medieval manuscript production, architectural drawing, painting, luxury arts, and monumental sculpture. Each of Branner’s three great books on Gothic architecture brought a different approach. ...

Article

Leslie Bussis Tait

American art dealers of Hungarian birth, active also in France. Joseph Brummer (b Zombor, Hungary (now Sombor, Serbia), 1883; d New York, 14 April 1947) trained as a sculptor, studying under Auguste Rodin (1840–1917). In 1906 he gave up his own practice to open a gallery in Paris. His brother Ernest Brummer (b Zombor, Hungary (now Sombor, Serbia), 1891; d New York, 21 Feb 1964) trained as an archaeologist, studying at the Ecole du Louvre and the Sorbonne. Before and following service in World War I, Ernest participated in several expeditions to Egypt and the Middle East, which were occasions to collect antiquities. These became the stock (along with contemporary painting and sculpture, Japanese prints, African and Pre-Columbian art, and medieval objects) for the Brummer Gallery in Paris where Ernest assisted his brothers Joseph and Imre (d 1928). By 1917 Joseph left France to establish the New York gallery; Ernest joined him shortly before the outbreak of World War II. Their broad knowledge and discernment in many fields led to the Brummers’ prominent reputation as leading art dealers....

Article

Mitchell B. Merback

(b Keighly, Yorks, March 6, 1958; d Chicago, IL, April 29, 2002).

British art historian and medievalist, active in America. He studied English and Art History at the University of Cambridge, graduating with honours in 1980 and then worked towards a PhD (1985) in medieval art under George Henderson and Jean Michel Massing, while reading critical theory with Norman Bryson, who was a key early influence. Hired in 1985 by the University of Chicago, he served as the Mary L. Block Professor until his death in April 2002. Considered among the most innovative medievalists of the 20th century, Camille experimented broadly with literary theory, semiotics and deconstruction, psychoanalysis, gender studies, body history, biographical, and auto-biographical narrative modes. A meteoric streak of provocative and iconoclastic publications, some of them avowedly post-modern, signalled a profound rejection of the 19th century’s romantic and nationalistic vision of the Middle Ages and found audiences far beyond both art history and medieval studies.

Two pioneering articles, coinciding with his arrival in the United States in ...

Article

Joseph R. Kopta

(b Neenah, WI, June 28, 1894; d Bedford, MA, March 4, 1984).

American architectural historian. Conant was the leading 20th-century American architectural historian specializing in Romanesque architecture, and was the primary archaeologist of the monastic complex at Cluny. He earned his degrees from Harvard, including a BA in Fine Arts in 1915, an MArch. in 1919, and a PhD with a dissertation on the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, supervised by Arthur Kingsley Porter, in 1926. He trained in archaeological practices in 1926 at the excavations of Chichén Itzá and Pueblo Bonito before directing excavations in earnest at Cluny starting in 1928. He was Professor of Architecture Emeritus at Harvard University, retiring from teaching in 1954.

An active member of the Medieval Academy of America (which funded his excavations after initial funding from the Guggenheim Foundation), Conant published frequent field reports documenting the excavations of Cluny as articles in Speculum. Additionally, Conant published a monograph on the sum of the excavations in ...

Article

(CRSBI)

International organization dedicated to the recording and documentation of all known examples of Romanesque sculpture in Britain and Ireland. The organization was the brainchild of George Zarnecki, scholar of Romanesque art and former Deputy Director of the Courtauld Institute of Art. His aim was to develop a photographic and scholarly archive in which every known example of Romanesque sculpture in Britain and Ireland would be recorded for posterity. In 1988 Zarencki and Neil Stratford (Department of Medieval and Later Antiquities, British Museum) submitted a proposal for funding and support to the British Academy which was successful and the project has been under the remit of that organization since.

Under the guidance of scholars, a team of volunteers track down examples of Romanesque sculpture and measure, describe, and photograph the works before they are eventually made available on the internet with a full bibliography. The project has been directed by Peter Lasko...

Article

Colum P. Hourihane

International scholarly organization dedicated to the study of medieval Stained glass. Although it is claimed that the organization was founded in 1949, it was not formally established until 1952 when a group of interested scholars met at the International Congress for the History of Art in Amsterdam under the guidance of Hans R. Hahnloser and where guidelines for the recording and cataloguing of stained glass were then structured. Hahnloser had already discussed the possibility of founding such an organization three years earlier at the 16th International Congress for the History of Art in Lisbon when an outline and draft were proposed.

This international project now has branches in 12 countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, and the US) with related committees in Portugal and Russia. Its aims are to record all medieval stained or painted glass, although some committees have also ventured into later periods. Each country has its own national committee that is financially dependent on securing its own funding. Most national committees are run by volunteers. These committees determine the research priorities and usually work in tandem with other organizations. The independent nature of these various committees and their dependency on securing their own finance has meant that the project does not have a uniform level of publication or activity....

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(Maria)

(b Höhr-Grenzhausen, Westerwald, May 8, 1942; d Manchester, March 14, 2008).

German scholar of late medieval and early Renaissance art of northern Europe, active in the UK. Born in Germany, she relocated with her family to Northern Ireland at the age of 12. In 1963, she earned a BA in German from Queen’s University, Belfast. From 1964 to 1972, she worked towards her PhD at the University of Vienna under Otto Pächt and Otto Demus. During this time she spent a year researching at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London on an Austria Council Scholarship. In 1972, she submitted her thesis, which traced the stylistic development of 13th- and 14th-century misericords. Also in 1972, she began a lectureship in the Art History department of Manchester University, which she would maintain for the rest of her career. From 1998, she served as Senior Lecturer at Manchester and in 2004, she was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

Grössinger wrote four monographs and numerous periodical articles over her career. Most of her scholarship concerned medieval church furniture; she was an expert on English misericords—the subject of her best-known work, ...

Article

Debra Higgs Strickland

(b London, Dec 2, 1947; d Edinburgh, Dec 27, 2006).

English art historian and epigrapher. Higgitt earned degrees at Oriel College, Oxford University (BA Hons, 1969), and the Courtauld Institute of Art (MA, 1972). He taught History of Art at the University of Edinburgh from 1974 until his death in 2006. He is best known for his progressive work on medieval epigraphy and its functions in his contributions to numerous edited anthologies, eight volumes of the Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture, as well as in several separately published studies on early medieval sculpture, patronage, and inscriptions. He also edited three important volumes dedicated to art historical and epigraphical analysis of the early medieval standing stones of the British Isles and Ireland. As an advocate for ancient and medieval Scottish art, he served on the Ancient Monuments Board for Scotland and on the archaeological advisory body for Historic Scotland. Motivated by his particular concern with conservation issues relevant to Scotland’s sculptural heritage, he helped to found, and also chaired, the National Committee on the Carved Stones of Scotland, which oversees the conservation of regional carved monuments from prehistoric rock art to contemporary gravestones....

Article

American library in Saint John’s University, Collegeville, MN, founded in 1965. The Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML; formerly the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library) contains over 115,000 microfilm and digital images of medieval, Renaissance, early modern and Eastern Christian manuscripts. To fulfil its mission of preserving endangered manuscripts and making them more accessible to scholars, HMML photographs entire manuscript libraries that lack the resources to preserve their own collections, are inaccessible to researchers, or are in immediate danger of destruction. Until 2003, HMML photographed entire manuscripts on black and white microfilm and shot selected illuminations in colour. When the Library switched to digital photography in 2003, it shot entire volumes in colour and recorded codicological information.

The vast majority of HMML’s holdings reproduce texts predating 1600. Nearly half of HMML’s Western manuscripts derive from libraries in Austria and Germany, but HMML also houses significant collections from Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and England. The Maltese collections are particularly important and include the Archives of the Knights of Malta. HMML has photographed collections of Eastern Christian manuscripts since the 1970s, and its collections of Armenian, Syriac, and Christian Arabic manuscripts are becoming the most significant resource for the study of Eastern Christian manuscripts in the world. HMML has by far the world’s largest collection of Ethiopian manuscripts preserved on microfilm and in digital form....

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Norwich, 1827; d Norwich, 1881).

English designer and architect. He began his career as an architect, designing and restoring parish churches in the Gothic Revival style. In 1859 he entered into a close association with the iron and brass foundry of Barnard, Bishop & Barnard of Norwich. Jeckyll pioneered the use of the Anglo-Japanese style for furnishings. His fireplace surrounds, grates, chairs, tables and benches often incorporate roundels containing Japanese-inspired floral and geometric ornament. Jeckyll’s foliate-patterned ironwork was featured in Barnard, Bishop & Barnard’s pavilion at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, and he designed the foundry’s cast- and wrought-iron pavilion for the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia. This two-storey structure was supported by bracketed columns elaborately decorated with a variety of birds and flowers and was surrounded by railings in the form of sunflowers, a motif that was later adapted to firedogs.

During the 1870s Jeckyll was one of several Aesthetic Movement architects and artists responsible for the interiors of 1 Holland Park, London, the home of the collector ...

Article

Centre for the study of the humanities founded in 1929 by the University of St Michael’s College in the University of Toronto and the Congregation of the Priests of St Basil. The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies (PIMS) is the oldest humanities research institute in Canada. The founders, who included Etienne Gilson from the Sorbonne and the Collège de France, planned an institution that would provide the essential resources for scholarly research and publication, attract research scholars, and offer advanced training at the graduate level particularly in palaeography and codicology, as well as medieval philosophy and theology.

In 1939, the Institute was awarded pontifical status by the Vatican, and has since been regulated by pontifical statutes and has the power to grant pontifical degrees in Mediaeval Studies. PIMS has remained a relatively small, autonomous academic community with no departmental divisions, but with informal ties to St Michael’s College and the University of Toronto’s graduate Centre for Medieval Studies. At present, PIMS offers a post-doctoral Licentiate programme that provides four fully funded one-year post-doctoral fellowships. The Institute has one endowed position, the Leonard E. Boyle Chair in Manuscript Studies, and a university press that publishes studies, texts, translations, reference works, and collections of articles relating to the art, history, and culture of the Middle Ages and early modern period. The Institute’s well respected annual journal, ...

Article

Clark Maines

(b Bayonne, Jan 7, 1935; d Aug 10, 2009).

French medieval art historian and archaeologist. Pressouyre studied history and geography as well as archaeology and art history at Bordeaux (1960) and received his doctorate from Strasbourg in 1979. He taught at the Sorbonne as well as at Yale and Michigan universities. Pressouyre was renowned as a stimulating lecturer and supportive teacher. His medieval archaeology seminar brought together students and specialists, influencing many in the field for more than 20 years. His students’ admiration was expressed in a festschrift, Utilis est lapis in structura (2000).

Pressouyre’s early publications focused on 12th-century sculpture, particularly on the rich ensemble from the cloister of Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne (formerly Châlons-sur-Marne), which he excavated and for which he created an on-site museum. Among the more than 80 articles he had published in major journals, his studies on stylistic trends in 12th-century sculpture in the Champagne region, and on the iconography of the medieval cloister, remain standards in the field....

Article

Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen

(b Steele an der Ruhr, Feb 22, 1843; d Listernohl, Nov 24, 1918).

German, collector, art historian, and canon of Cologne Cathedral. Schnütgen studied theology and art history in Münster, Tübingen, Leuven, and Mainz. Ordained in 1866, he became vicar of Cologne Cathedral and assistant to Bishop Franz Baudri, was active in the Gesellschaft für Christliche Kunst, founded by Baudri 1852, and was also in contact with major players in the culturally and politically active Catholic scene in the Rhineland under Prussian rule, such as Friedrich Baudri and August Reichensberger. Schnütgen’s interest in artworks that had fallen into disregard in many country churches gradually turned him into a knowledgeable collector in contact with collectors and art historians throughout Europe, such as Franz Bock in Aix-la-Chapelle, Fritz Mayer van den Bergh in Antwerp, Anton Münzenberger in Frankfurt, and Wilhelm Bode in Berlin. From 1891 to 1896, and again from 1900 to 1906, Schnütgen directed the Diözesan-Museum in Cologne.

As of 1878 he started to refinance his collecting activities by selling large parts of his own collection to important museums and ecclesiastical institutions in Berlin, Nuremberg, Hamburg, Esztergom, and London. Since ...

Article

Gregory A. Pass

The Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library at Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, is a research library for medieval and Renaissance manuscript studies that holds more than 37,000 manuscripts on microfilm from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. In addition, it holds microfilms of more than 2400 manuscripts from other libraries, 52,000 colour slides of manuscript illumination, and large collections of microfilmed Jesuit historical documents relating to the Order’s activities in the Americas and the Philippines. The library maintains an extensive reference collection of published manuscript catalogues and unpublished inventories for Vatican Library manuscripts, as well as manuscript catalogues for many other libraries, works on palaeography, codicology, and illumination, manuscript facsimiles, and other reference materials and periodicals to support the study of manuscripts and their texts.

The library was opened in 1953. Since 1957 it has published the journal Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research, which features articles and reviews on palaeography, codicology, illumination, library history, manuscript catalogues, text editing, and other subjects. Since ...

Article

Robert S. Nelson

(b Mainz, Aug 28, 1892; d Mainz, Dec 23, 1988).

German art historian and curator. Prolific scholar of medieval art, especially sculpture and the minor arts of the early Middle Ages and Byzantium, Volbach was a museum curator in Berlin, Rome, and Mainz. On the staff of Berlin museums from 1916 to 1933, he left for Italy after he was judged not Aryan because of his mother’s Jewish background. In 1934 he accepted a position at the Vatican museums, where he catalogued and organized the collections of the Museo Sacro. Returning to Germany in 1946, he was associated with the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz from 1950 and served as its director from 1953 to 1958.

For his doctoral dissertation, published in 1917, he wrote on the theme of St George in German Renaissance art, but his real interest was in earlier periods. In a catalogue of the Mainz museum from 1916, he wrote about Late Antique and early medieval ivories. Updated in ...