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Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Junghee Lee

[Yi]

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...

Article

Shauna Goodwin

Japanese school of secular professional ink painters active from the end of the 15th century. It was organized along hereditary lines within the Kanō family family, who guarded their painting traditions closely and passed the leadership of the school from father to son or to the nearest male relative (for illustration of family tree see Kanō family). Young men of artistic talent from outside the Kanō family were also taken on as apprentices, and in exceptional cases, such as those of Kanō Sanraku and Kanō Kōi (see Kanō family, §8), they were adopted into the family and granted the right to establish studios of their own. In rare instances women were recognized as members of the family, as in the case of Kanō Yukinobu (see Kanō family, §15). The hereditary apprentice system permitted Kanō masters to undertake enormous painting projects that were possible only with the collaboration of a team of assistants; it also encouraged the preservation and transmission of the practices of the Kanō school over many generations....

Article

Seto  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, near Nagoya (Aichi Prefect.). The area occupies an important place in Japanese ceramic history, because, together with neighbouring Mino, it was the only ceramics centre to produce glazed ware before the Momoyama period (1568–1600). Its importance as a producer of utilitarian wares in the early modern period is reflected in the word setomono (‘things from Seto’), which is synonymous with ceramics in eastern Japan (see Japan §IX 3., (i), (c)).

Evidence from more than 500 kiln sites dating back to the Kamakura (1185–1333) and Muromachi (1333–1568) periods demonstrates that, under the influence of Sanage, a major kiln centre in the south-west, Seto began to show distinction as a ceramics centre in the 12th century. This development was made possible by the rise of eastern Japan as a political centre; newly empowered warrior élites, lacking the access to Chinese imports that the residents of older urban centres enjoyed, commissioned the Seto kilns to produce ash-glazed ceramics in the style of Song period (...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production, in the foothills flanking the Daido River valley in south-west Ōmi Province (now Shiga Prefect.). Together with Seto, Echizen, Tanba, Bizen and Tokoname, Shigaraki is one of Japan’s oldest continuously functioning traditional pottery centres (see Japan §IX 3., (i), (d)). Sue stonewares and green-glazed earthenwares were produced in various locations in the Shigaraki region between the 6th century ad and the 10th, but the relationship between this early manufacture and the production of the subsequent period, evidenced in the appearance of large-mouthed jars (kame), small-mouthed jars (tsubo) and kitchen mortars (suribachi), is unclear. Although over 50 early kiln sites have been identified, only one group, the Nakaide kilns at the northern part of the valley, have been scientifically excavated. The earliest Shigaraki wares so far discovered seem to date from the 13th century, and suggest an influence from Tokoname, a large kiln complex in neighbouring Aichi Prefecture. Dated wares from the 14th century show the emergence of the distinctive Shigaraki clay body, characterized by large grains of feldspar and quartz and fired to a warm orange colour. The ware was fired in an excavated tunnel kiln (...

Article

Tanba  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of Japanese ceramics production based in and around Tachikui and Kamaya villages (Hyōgo Prefect.). Together with Bizen, Shigaraki, Echizen, Seto and Tokoname, Tanba is one of the few Japanese kiln centres that has been active from the 12th century to the present day. The origins of Tanba ware are not perfectly understood, but recent excavations of the Sanbontōge kiln (late 12th century–early 13th), thought to be the earliest Tanba kiln, suggest that the Echizen (Fukui Prefect.) and possibly the Tokoname (Aichi Prefect.) kilns played a central role in the ware’s development. The principal wares, which reflect improvements in Japanese agricultural production in the 12th century, include a limited number of kitchen mortars (suribachi), and greater quantities of wide-mouthed jars (kame) and narrow-mouthed jars (tsubo). Ten kiln sites, spanning a period from the 12th to the 16th centuries, have been identified, and it is thought that these were single-chamber tunnel kilns (...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in western Chita (Aichi Prefect.), Japan. Tokoname, together with other important centres such as Bizen, Shigaraki, Seto, Tanba and Echizen, is famous for its continuous production to the present day (see Japan §IX 3., (ii)). The origins of the ware can be traced back to the 12th century, when increased agricultural development encouraged the spread of high-fired ceramics techniques from the central Sanage kiln complex, near the city of Nagoya, to neighbouring districts, including Higashiyama, Atsumi and Tokoname. Evidence for the Sanage lineage is seen in the Tokoname tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 1., (v)) with a dividing pillar, variously placed at the fire-mouth or inside the kiln at the base of the slope. Unlike the Sanage potters, however, the Tokoname potters made larger vessels by coiling rather than with the potter’s wheel.

Before the 16th century, Tokoname kilns made three principal products: narrow-mouthed jars (...

Article

Quitman E. Phillips

School of Japanese painting. It flourished from the early 15th century until well into the 19th. Painters of the school (see Tosa family) have long been recognized primarily as the supreme latter-day masters of Yamatoe (see Japan, §VI, 3, (iii)), but extant works suggest that they were considerably more versatile. Tosa artists painted Buddhist icons and bird-and-flower subjects based on Chinese models as well as native ones. They also sometimes incorporated the coarser styles of brushwork associated in Japan with Chinese painting of the Song period (ad 960–1279) and later.

Historians of the 17th and 18th centuries ascribed considerable antiquity to the name Tosa, but the surname probably began early in the 15th century as a title of governorship of the province of Tosa (now Kōchi Prefect.) on the island of Shikoku. The genealogy of the family before the late 15th century is unknown. In the early 15th century, a number of painters of different surname, including ...