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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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John Ford

[Rudolf]

(b Stollberg, Saxony, April 20, 1764; d Finchley, London, March 30, 1834).

English publisher and patron of German birth. He trained as a carriage designer in Paris and moved to England between 1783 and 1786. He established his own business as a carriage maker, undertaking major commissions in London and Dublin. In 1804 he designed Pius VII’s carriage for the coronation of Napoleon and in 1805 the funeral carriage of Horatio, Viscount Nelson. By 1800 Ackermann had built up a unique business at 101 The Strand, London, known as ‘The Repository of Arts’. This encompassed a drawing school with 80 pupils, the sale and loan of Old Master paintings and watercolour drawings, the publication of decorative prints and illustrated books and the manufacture of watercolour paints including a number of new chemical pigments.

In the early 19th century, Ackermann was an important and regular patron of English watercolour painters, employing William Henry Pyne, Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas Heaphy, Frederick Mackenzie (1787–1854...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

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Marcus Burke

[Alvárez de Toledo] [now Berwick y Alba]

Spanish family of politicians and collectors. The prominent role of the Alvárez de Toledo family in the history of Spain and the dynastic marriages that have joined many other titles into the house of Berwick y Alba have placed the Alba collection among the finest in Europe. Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo (1507–82), the ‘Gran-Duque’ de Alba, Governor of the Netherlands (from 1567), commissioned paintings from Anthonis Mor and Titian (General Pardon Conceded to Flanders by the Duque de Alba; Christ in the House of Martha; portrait of Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, Duque de Alba, in Armour; all Madrid, Pal. Liria, Col. Duke of Alba). His namesake, Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, the 6th duke, returned to Spain in 1653 from an embassy in Italy with a large shipment of works of art. The family collection, which included an impressive holding of tapestries, was housed in the palace of La Abadia in Extremadura and at the former ducal seat in Alba de Tormes....

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Olivier Bonfait and François Quiviger

[Aldovrandi]

Italian family of patrons. The Aldrovandi were one of the oldest patrician families in Bologna and were prominent in the city’s civic life from at least the 12th century. Giovanni Francesco Aldrovandi (d 1512) was ambassador to Rome and Ferrara, a poet and patron of literature. According to Vasari, Michelangelo stayed in Aldrovandi’s palazzo in 1494–5 (see Michelangelo §I 1., (i)). The most renowned family member was (1) Ulisse Aldrovandi, the naturalist and antiquarian. Conte Filippo Aldrovandi commissioned paintings from Guercino, such as the Portrait of a Dog (c. 1625; Pasadena, CA, Norton Simon Mus.), and fresco decorations in the Villa Giovannina, near Cento. The earliest inventory of the family collection (1644) lists 72 items; by c. 1690 this had grown to 293. Pompeo Aldrovandi (1668–1752), who was made a cardinal in 1734, began rebuilding the family palazzo (now the Palazzo Montanari) in ...

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Nigel Glendinning

[Osorio Moscoso y Guzmán; Astorga, Marqueses de]

Spanish family of patrons. The 10th Conde de Altamira, Joaquín Ventura Osorio de Moscoso y Guzmán (bapt Madrid, 4 Feb 1724; d Madrid, 28 Aug 1783), inherited the title of Marqués de Astorga from his mother, and on his father’s side his ancestors were the Conde-Duque de Olivares and the Marqués de Leganés, both notable collectors. The 10th Conde served as Councillor of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and was an honorary academician of the Academia de S Carlos in Valencia. His wealth was fabled, and he commissioned Ventura Rodríguez to design an opulent new palace (1772) in the Calle de S Bernardo, Madrid. It was feared that the building might outshine the Palacio Real, and the single surviving façade gives some measure of its earlier glory. The same architect also designed special decorations for the palace of the Conde in ...

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David Blayney Brown

(b St Petersburg, 1735; d Blackheath [now London], Jan 22, 1823).

Merchant, philanthropist and collector. He was supposedly the natural son of the Empress Anna of Russia and an English merchant. In the course of his career in the City of London he established Lloyd’s on a new footing. He amassed a fortune that he expended on charity and, from about 1790, on collecting paintings, guided by Benjamin West and Thomas Lawrence. Angerstein’s first acquisitions were English pictures: family portraits commissioned from Joshua Reynolds from 1765, and William Hogarth’s Self-portrait with a Pug (1745; London, Tate), bought in 1789. After 1790 he took advantage of the dispersal of Continental collections after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic campaigns to secure Old Masters in prime examples, sometimes at record prices. His early purchase (1794) of Aelbert Cuyp’s Hilly River Landscape (c. 1655–66; London, N.G.) proved to be untypical of a taste that inclined to figure paintings by Raphael, ...