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Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1755, in Paris; died 24 January 1838, in Paris.

Painter. Genre scenes.

He was admitted into the Académie on 24 September 1785, and his painting The Naturalist earned him the title of Académicien on 7 June 1789. Among the works he exhibited at various Salons are ...

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b c. 1770; d Edinburgh, Feb 1843).

Scottish painter. He originally worked as a wigmaker. In the 1790s he produced topographical illustrations in Edinburgh and reputedly trained under David Allan and at the Trustees’ Academy. Turning to figure subjects c. 1800, he contributed to the development of Realism in Scottish genre. He evolved a frank but subtle style with a sensitive response to character and the nuances of light, seen in Arrival of the Country Cousins (c. 1812; Duke of Buccleuch priv. col.). His art was admired by the young David Wilkie, who based his Pitlessie Fair on Carse’s Oldhamstock Fair (1796; both in Edinburgh, N.G.). Wilkie also took up many of the subjects that Carse had already derived from Allan, such as Penny Wedding, which Carse had painted in 1819 (G. N. Statham priv. col., on dep. Edinburgh, N.G.)

Carse contributed to the exhibitions of the Society of Incorporated Artists in Edinburgh from their inception in ...

Article

(b Venice, 1637; d Venice, ?1712).

Italian painter. He trained first with Matteo Ponzoni, then with Sebastiano Mazzoni; Mazzoni encouraged the development of a Baroque style, but Celesti was also attracted by the naturalism of the tenebrists. The first known works by Celesti are mature in style, and he had already achieved considerable fame in Venice when the Doge Alvise Contarini honoured him with the title of Cavaliere in 1681. The complexity of his sources is evident in two canvases, Moses Destroying the Golden Calf and Moses Chastising the Hebrew People for their Idolatry, both painted c. 1681 for the Palazzo Ducale, Venice, and signed Cavaliere; they are influenced by Luca Giordano and by the narrative techniques of Jacopo Tintoretto. The most distinguished works of Celesti’s early period are two large lunettes that show three scenes: Benedict III Visiting St Zacharias, A Doge Presented with the Body of a Saint, and the Virtues Surrounding a Doge Holding the Model of St Zacharias...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1746, in Alton (Hampshire); died 1799, in London.

Draughtsman.

William Curtis was a naturalist and drew for the sake of science.

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Born 1703, in Mannheim; died 1748, in Mannheim.

Painter. History painting, portraits.

Essentially an official portrait painter, he worked in Speyer and Mannheim. He displayed a certain realism, placing his subjects - sometimes dressed in a picturesque manner - under a very bold chiaroscuro....

Article

Ettore Spalletti

(b Siena, March 1, 1817; d Florence, Jan 10, 1882).

Italian sculptor and writer. He was among the foremost sculptors in Tuscany in the generation after Lorenzo Bartolini. His early experiments in naturalism attracted such hostile criticism that he was forced to abandon this style in favour of a sensual neo-Greek manner. His later works are marked by a richly expressive eclecticism.

He trained with his father, a wood-carver, and briefly attended the Istituto di Belle Arti in Siena. By 1826 or 1827 he was in Florence, where he joined the workshop of the wood-carver Paolo Sani. Dupré alternated this work with practical attempts at teaching himself, particularly drawing, as part of his ambition to become a sculptor. His first proper sculpture, a wooden figure of St Philomena, was shown in 1838 at the annual exhibition of the Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, where it attracted the praise of Lorenzo Bartolini, among others. In 1840 he made a jewel casket, inspired by the interior architecture of the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Florence, which was acquired by ...

Article

David Mannings

Term current in 18th-century England to describe contemporary genre pictures of a sentimental realism, in which the artist’s own whimsy played a substantial part. Samuel Johnson defined ‘fancy’ in his Dictionary of the English Language (1755) as a synonym for ‘imagination’ but also in the subsidiary senses of ‘taste’ and of ‘something that pleases and entertains’. The usual subjects for fancy pictures are children and young women represented life-size or slightly smaller, though the term, never used very precisely, has also been applied to landscape paintings having a predominant figural element of a sentimental nature. The keynote in fancy paintings is a sort of contrived innocence, sometimes with erotic overtones. In style and treatment, though not in mood, they were often inspired by the genre scenes and character studies of such 17th-century masters as Rembrandt and Murillo; analogous works by 18th-century French artists, most notably Chardin and Greuze, were also influential in the development of the type. The fancy picture is now most commonly associated with works of this kind by ...

Article

Genkei  

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th century.

Painter.

Genkei was a pupil of Shuseki (1639-1707). He lived in Nagasaki where he worked as an interpreter in Dutch. He belonged to what might be called the realist Nagasaki school....

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Born c. 1754; died 13 April 1793, in Paris.

Sculptor.

Joseph Goutheinze worked on the Hôtel de Salm-Kyrbourg in Paris, which later became the Légion d'Honneur building. In 1789 he realised the designs for the decoration of the dining room at the Bourbon Palace after plans by the architect Leroy....

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 19 June 1731, in Reugne; died 22 February 1801, in Rome.

Sculptor.

Guillaume Antoine Grandjaquet realised a statue in the church of St-Claude in Besançon.

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 23 October 1766, in Paris; died 29 May 1847, in St-Étienne.

Draughtsman.

J. H. Meyer realised an etching of a view for the Swiss Calendar of 1795 after a drawing by Emmanuel de Grouchy.

Article

Hakyo  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1764; died 1826.

Painter.

Hakyo was a follower of Maruyama Okyo (1733-1795) and was a painter in the Maruyama Realist School started by Okyo. He specialised in flowers and birds.

Article

Danish, 18th century, male.

Born 12 May 1745, in Balslev; died 27 December 1802, in Copenhagen.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Naturalist.

Jens Juel was a pupil of Johann Michael Gehrmann. As a successor to Peder Als, Juel made a substantial contribution to Danish portraiture. Following his studies with Gehrmann in Hamburg, he attended the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and received a gold medal. The next year he left for Rome, Paris and Geneva. Upon his return in ...

Article

Katen  

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Born 1730, in Kyoto; died 1794.

Painter. Landscapes, flowers.

Katen belonged to the realist school of Nagasaki and mainly painted cherry trees in bloom. He seems also to have painted a portrait sold at auction in London.

London, 13 Nov 1989...

Article

Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1770; died 1819.

Engraver.

The naturalist and artist John William Lewin settled in Paramatta (New South Wales, Australia), from where he published a number of collections of original coloured prints: Prodromus Entomology (18 plates), Birds of New Holland (22 plates) and ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Died c. 1795, in London.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Flowers, animals.

A naturalist, William Lewin was the brother of John William Lewin. He featured at the Free Society of Artists in 1764 and 1782 with drawings and paintings of flowers. He published the following works with original engravings: ...

Article

Richard C. Green

(b Venice, Jan 21, 1655; d Venice, Feb 3, 1704).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the painter Giovanni Molinari (1633–87) and studied in Venice with Antonio Zanchi. His style had its origins in the naturalism and tenebrism of Neapolitan painting, introduced to Venice in the mid-17th century. Although his work always retained some traces of this naturalism, the typically violent subject-matter and intensity of the Neapolitan style were considerably tempered by the addition of classicizing elements and of rich, glowing colours. By the 1680s Molinari had developed his characteristic manner of depicting figures in poses of extreme torsion and vigorous movement, arranged in graceful compositions. His subject-matter included episodes from the Old and New Testaments, antiquity and Classical mythology. His classical idiom was most pronounced in his large canvases painted for churches, such as the Feeding of the Five Thousand (1690; Venice, S Pantalon) and the Death of Uzzah (c. 1695; Murano, S Maria degli Angeli). In the ...

Article

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Born in Ohara, near Yamashiro (Kyoto Prefecture); died 1733, in Nagasaki (Fukuoka).

Painter.

Keizan studied in the Kano style before adopting the realist style of the Nagasaki School. He painted flowers and birds.

Article

Danish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 6 January 1748, in Rellingen; died 26 December 1830, in Copenhagen.

Miniaturist.

Heinrich Ploetz was the father of Carl Ludwig Ploetz. He was a pupil of Marsinhe in Ghent. He was employed by the Swiss naturalist Charles Bonnet to draw insects. In ...