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Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

Article

An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...

Article

Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

[art consultant]

Paid adviser employed by collectors to recommend and facilitate the purchase of works of art. There is a long history of recruitment of art experts by wealthy patrons for advisery purposes. In the 18th century art historians such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann were actively advising leading collectors like Albani family §(2). In the early 20th century the English dealer Joseph Duveen earned a knighthood for his philanthropic efforts on behalf of British galleries. Enlisted by the so-called American Robber Barons for advice in forming collections, Duveen brokered the sale of many notable Old Masters from English aristocrats to American millionaires, including Henry Clay Frick, J. P. Morgan, Henry E. Huntington, and Andrew Mellon. Their collections ultimately formed the nuclei of many great American museums. Duveen’s contemporary Bernard Berenson was an American scholar and expert on Renaissance painting who turned his hand to art advising. Berenson assisted Isabella Stewart Gardner in forming her renowned collection of Renaissance art. His legacy as an academic is controversial thanks to his habit of accepting payment in exchange for favourable ...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

Prior to the 20th century, the attribution of works of art was not governed by rigid regulations, and art dealers and auctioneers assigned attributions based purely on aesthetic grounds. Works were attributed to the artist whose manner they most closely resembled, but they were not further distinguished on the basis of quality; as a result, many paintings purchased as Renaissance masterpieces in the 18th or 19th century have since been downgraded to studio works or even much later pastiches.

Historically, the patrons who commissioned Old Masters placed a premium on subject-matter rather than originality, and popular narratives were requested by multiple patrons, creating conditions in which the demand for copies could flourish (see Copy). Popular compositions were often reproduced many times: by the master himself, an apprentice in his workshop, or even a later follower or imitator. A master trained his apprentices to approximate his manner as closely as possible, and sold the finished work under his own name. In some cases a master would paint the most important part of a work (such as the faces of the central figures) before delegating the rest to apprentices. Through the 19th century, pupils at prestigious institutions were taught by making copies of works by acknowledged masters. Many pieces, particularly drawings (which for much of their history were working tools, rather than art objects), were unsigned. Damaged or incomplete works of art were subjected to extensive restoration or reworking by later artists, a process that can cloud the question of attribution....

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Vienna, Aug 17, 1757; d Vienna, Aug 21, 1821).

Austrian museum administrator and writer . He studied at the University of Vienna and under Jacob Schmuzer (1733–1811) at the Viennese Academy of Arts, where he learnt printmaking and drawing. From 1777 he worked in the Imperial Library, cataloguing the contents. He expanded his knowledge of prints by travel in Europe: in 1784 he went to Paris to try to acquire the print collection of the miniaturist Johann Anton de Peters; he also studied Parisian collections and purchased 21 Rembrandt prints from Pierre-François Basan. At this time Bartsch began to formulate his approach to the study and classification of prints; as a model to his approach, he undoubtedly looked to the extensive lists and annotations made by Pierre Mariette (ii) of the albums of prints that formed the core of the imperial print collection. In June 1784 Bartsch visited Brussels, where he met the art dealer Domenico Artaria. He travelled in the Netherlands and built up an extensive knowledge of Rembrandt’s etchings, which he later put to use in his catalogue raisonné. In ...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

Efrem Gisella Calingaert

(b Bologna, Feb 7, 1767; d Bologna, June 18, 1845).

Italian art historian. He studied art and architecture independently and in 1786 and 1789 travelled around Italy recording his impressions of monuments and works of art. Concerned about the artistic patrimony of Bologna during the French occupation, he executed drawings and descriptions of the works of art and architecture in risk of removal or destruction and in 1816 celebrated the restitution by the French of 18 paintings with the booklet Descrizione de’ quadri restituiti a Bologna. He was appointed an honorary member of the Accademia di Belle Arti, Bologna, in 1805, academician in 1818 and acting president in 1824, with the title of Propresidente in 1831. Elogio di Sebastiano Serlio: Architetto bolognese (1823) was the first of 15 biographical studies written by Bolognini. These formed the basis of his principal achievement: Vite dei pittori ed artefici bolognesi. The work describes 184 painters, sculptors, architects and engravers who lived in or originated from Bologna between ...

Article

(b Newcastle upon Tyne, April 9, 1757; d London, March 21, 1821).

English art historian, connoisseur and dealer. He went to the Continent in 1781 to study art and married Juliana Talbot, sister of Charles Talbot, 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, on 7 June 1784. In London after 1790 he established himself as an authority on painting. In 1798 he negotiated the sale of the Italian and French pictures from the Orléans collection, by then in England, to Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, George Granville Leveson-Gower, Earl Gower (later 2nd Marquess of Stafford and 1st Duke of Sutherland) and Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle, for the sum of £43,500. The collection was exhibited in London at Bryan’s gallery in Pall Mall and at the Lyceum in the Strand. The pictures that the original purchasers did not wish to retain were sold to, among others, John Julius Angerstein, who bought Sebastiano del Piombo’s Raising of Lazarus (1516–18; London, N.G.). In the course of his commercial activities Bryan built up a collection of his own, which he sold on 17–...

Article

Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Milan, 1791; d Milan, March 28, 1872).

Italian painter and art historian. He was trained as a painter in the Neo-classical school of Giuseppe Bossi, and by Vincenzo Camuccini and Pietro Benvenuti. He was the author of Notizie sulla vita…e degli Sforza, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century, which largely established the canon of early Milanese artists. Calvi’s book was founded on his perceptive connoisseurship of painting and sculpture, and a good understanding of secondary literature. He made a thorough, intelligent use of primary sources including lapidary inscriptions, documents from the archives of Milan and Pavia, and also the then unpublished manuscript (compiled c. 1775) of Antonio Francesco Albuzzi. This work consisted of a collection of notes on the lives of Milanese artists, its author being the first secretary of the Accademia Braidense, where Giuseppe Bossi taught. Both Bossi and Calvi possessed copies of Albuzzi’s manuscript.

Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti, scultori e pittori che fiorirono in Milano durante il governo dei Visconti e degli Sforza...

Article

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

Nigel Glendinning

(b Gijón, Asturias, 1749; d Madrid, Dec 3, 1829).

Spanish writer and collector. His early association with Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was clearly of mutual benefit: Jovellanos learnt a great deal about art and collecting from Ceán, who was helped in his career as a minor civil servant by Jovellanos. As an amateur painter, Ceán acquired basic skills from Juan de Espinal (d 1783), director of an art school established in Seville by Ceán and his circle in 1770; he also had some guidance from Anton Raphael Mengs in Madrid, where he settled in 1778 and, presumably through Jovellanos, met Francisco de Goya c. 1778–80. At this time Goya was making his series of etchings after Diego Velázquez, and Ceán later owned most of Goya’s preliminary drawings for these. Goya painted and drew him several times (e.g. c. 1785; Madrid, Conde de Cienfuegos priv. col., see Gassier and Wilson, no. 222) and also painted a portrait of Ceán’s wife, Manuela Camas y Las Heras, normally identified with the ...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(Francesco)

(b Ferrara, 26 Nov 1767; d Venice, 5 March 1834). Italian critic, art historian, theorist, bibliophile and painter. He was educated at the Collegio dei Nobili in Modena (1776–85). From 1788 to 1790 he lived in Rome, where he was admitted to the Società dell’Arcadia in 1788, and became interested in ancient ruins and contemporary artists (particularly Anton Raphael Mengs) as well as in the theories of Francesco Milizia. After 1807 he abandoned a stormy political career, and, having settled in Venice, devoted himself to scholarship and painting. In 1808 he published his treatise on aesthetics, Del bello, in which he laid out the principal tenets of his Enlightenment and Neo-classical aesthetics. He upheld the important role played by philosophy in education and in the practice of art, championed the cause of progress in art, and dealt with the concepts of ‘absolute beauty’, ‘relative beauty’, ‘ideal beauty’, ‘grace or grazia’, and ‘the sublime’. From ...

Article

[Nino]

(b Rome, Oct 15, 1826; d Pisa, Jan 31, 1903).

Italian painter and critic. He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti and Francesco Coghetti at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Legione Romane; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome. Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Emile François David (1824–91) and the English painter Charles Coleman (1807–74), who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton and George Heming Mason, and they became lifelong friends. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, ...

Article

Juanita M. Ellias

(b Paris, 1770; d Paris, March 26, 1849).

French architect and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where in 1797 he won first prize in the competition for the Prix de Rome. One of his projects as a pensionnaire in Rome was a proposed restoration of the Temple of Vesta (published posthumously). His career after his return to France was lacklustre, but commissions included restorations of the Hôtel de Bouillon, Paris, the Hôtel d’Arenberg, Brussels, where he installed a new library, an abattoir at Ménilmontant and several country houses, including one for M. Pepin at Villette-aux-Aulnes. Coussin is best known for Du génie de l’architecture (1822), published to great contemporary acclaim but now forgotten. In a text that ranged in content from the primitive hut to the latest Paris sewers, Coussin appealed for a return to a basic approach to architecture, attacking speculators for their commercial approach to design and architects for pandering to them. He hoped to convince the public of the value of design based on theory, rather than as a mere fashionable appliqué for standard building types. In high-flown language he contrasted the speculators’ materialism with the true ‘genius’ of architecture, and found the mathematical basis for each style, constructing a system for their acceptable use based on ‘sentiment, genius and taste’. His analysis was similar to that of Julien-David Le Roy in the 1760s and his language was sympathetic to such ascendant elements of Romanticism as Eclecticism and the Néo-Grec....

Article

Martin Postle

(b Bristol, Feb 20, 1763; d Leatherhead, June 1834).

English churchman and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford and subsequently entered the Church. In 1789 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. His first major work, Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of the Science of Heraldry in England, was published in London in 1792. Following a period in Turkey as chaplain to the British Ambassador, he published Constantinople, Ancient and Modern (London, 1779), which was translated into German in 1800. That same year Dallaway published in London the book he is best remembered for, Anecdotes of the Arts in England, or Comparative Remarks on Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting, Chiefly Illustrated by Specimens at Oxford, one of a number of contemporary works that sought to codify the achievements of the nascent British School. It was translated into French by Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison in 1807. Anecdotes was followed by Observations on English Architecture...

Article

E. D. Lilley

(b Reims, Oct 25, 1761; d Paris, Oct 25, 1833).

French writer and painter. He trained with the landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes and between 1793 and 1800 exhibited at the Salon such works as Moonlight on the Seashore (1793) and Landscape with Houses (1795). Personal circumstances forced him to abandon painting for government service, but he retained a wide range of cultural interests. His Théorie du paysage and Histoire de l’art du paysage are among a number of early 19th-century treatises that reflected and influenced a change towards a more naturalistic depiction of landscape. The Théorie follows Valenciennes’s seminal Eléments de perspective pratique (Paris, 1799–1800) in insisting on the necessity of studying from nature, although it pays lip-service to the traditional academic hierarchy of genres by preserving the primacy of historical landscape, where the figures, often heroes of Classical antiquity, are more important than the landscape background. Boime suggests that knowledge of a manuscript of Deperthes’s work influenced the Académie des Beaux-Arts towards instituting a Prix de Rome for historical landscape in ...

Article

Ivo Kořán

[Gottfried]

(b Cerhenice, nr Plaňany, July 17, 1758; d Prague, Feb 4, 1820).

Czech writer and art historian. While studying in Prague he was influenced by Stanislav Vydra (1741–1804), a professor who encouraged him to contribute to the incipient Czech national revival. In 1778 he entered the Premonstratensian monastery in Strahov, and from 1802 he was in charge of its enormous library. In 1796 he became a member of the Royal Czech Society of Sciences and later (1813–18) its Director.

Dlabač started writing poetry in 1782. A history of Strahov appeared in 1805–7. In 1815, after 28 years of work, he published in Prague three volumes of Allgemeines historisches Künstler Lexikon für Böhmen. This dictionary provided unprecedentedly exhaustive records of artists and musicians, including biographical data and complete lists of their works. It also contained entries on individual objects, evaluations, criticisms and sources. Dlabač personally visited churches, monasteries and palaces to compile it, copying inscriptions from tombstones, bells and other sources. Many dozens of manuscripts on the topics of history, arts and science were preserved in Strahov in his legacy. In ...