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(b Quebec, Qué., Aug 10, 1764; d Quebec, Qué., June 3, 1839).

Canadian metalworker. He studied at the Petit Seminaire du Québec from 1778 to 1780 and began his apprenticeship c. 1780 in the silversmith’s shop of his elder brother, Jean-Nicolas Amiot (1750–1821); the tradition that he was apprenticed to François Ranvoyzé is unfounded. In 1782 he travelled to Paris to complete his training and remained there for five years, supported by his family. He absorbed the Louis XVI style, then popular in France, and after his return to Quebec in 1787 he set up a workshop to introduce this into Canada.

Much of Amiot’s work was for the Church, reworking traditional forms in the Louis XVI style. In a sanctuary lamp of 1788 for the church at Repentigny he elongated the standard shape and decorated it with a balanced arrangement of Neo-classical designs. After 1800 his work became formulaic and less innovative, though there are such notable exceptions as the chalice (...

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Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

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Clare Le Corbeiller

French family of gold- and silversmiths. Robert-Joseph Auguste (b 1723; d ?1805) became a master in 1757 after an apprenticeship that included work for Louis XV. His repertoire was unusual in that it embraced both silver tableware and gold objects of vertu; the latter includes four gold boxes made between 1762 and 1763, and 1769 and 1771 (Paris, Louvre; New York, Met.; London, V&A; Althorp House, Northants). In 1775 he received payment for the royal crown and other regalia (destr.) made for the coronation of Louis XVI in 1774. The majority of his work in silver is tableware and includes partial or complete services for the courts of Denmark (Copenhagen, Kon. Saml.) and Russia (St Petersburg, Hermitage) and for Gustav Filip Creutz of Sweden (1775–6; Stockholm, Kun. Slottet). He also made a service for George III of England (1776–85; Paris, Louvre). Auguste’s style is characterized by a light and graceful Neo-classicism, in which festoons and figures of children as handles or finials are prominent....

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Polish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1770, in Dukla; died after 1824, in Warsaw.

Sculptor, medallist.

Karl Barrend studied under Mathhaei Mattersperger, Casanova and Höckner in Dresden. In 1794 he showed several of his wax reliefs at the art exhibition held in the town. In ...

Article

Belgian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 8 September 1768, in Namur; died 10 June 1826.

Architect, sculptor, engraver, metal worker.

Barbier studied first in Belgium before completing his studies in Antwerp at the studio of J. Verbekt. He was appointed sculptor of the king's buildings and lived for a time at the Louvre. His works include medallions of ...

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Angela Catello

Italian family of gold- and silversmiths. Vincenzo Belli I (b Turin, 1710; d Rome, 1787) settled in Rome in 1740, where he worked with Roman masters on the altar for the chapel of St John the Baptist in S Roque in Lisbon. The works produced for this altar were the most important set of liturgical furnishings made in Rome during the 18th century (e.g. ewer and basin, 1745–50; Lisbon, Mus. S Roque). He created prototypes that influenced the taste of the period, especially in the field of secular silverware, for example a ewer and basin (Rome, Pal. Venezia), a pair of soup tureens, trays and other tableware (priv. col.). These are richly decorated in a Baroque style, though the forms are classical. Under Vincenzo’s leadership the family shop employed c. 20 people, which made it possible to maintain a steady rate of production to satisfy the constant commissions from nobles and churchmen. On Vincenzo’s death the shop was taken over by his son ...

Article

Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli

(b Cremona, Oct 26, 1770; d Cremona, 1854).

Italian gem-engraver and medallist. His numerous works, almost all dispersed, are documented in literary sources. His work, executed with meticulous attention to detail, consists primarily of cameo reproductions of paintings on large size stones. His masterpiece is considered to be the Tent of Darius (1828; Cremona, Mus. Civ.), carved in white Brazilian topaz and based on the painting by Charles Le Brun (Versailles, Château). The former work was commissioned by Bartolomeo Turina of Cremona, as were Angelica and Medoro, Wealth Conquered by Cupid, the head of Niobe and Rinaldo and Armida (all Cremona, Mus. Civ.). Beltrami also received sizeable commissions from the Bonaparte family; these include portraits of Napoleon and Josephine and the Myth of Psyche, portrayed on 16 white cornelians (untraced) supplied to him for that purpose by the Empress Josephine. Other commissions were from the Austrian imperial family, among them an onyx cameo of a wreathed bust of ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 5 July 1760, in Carpentras; died after 1812.

Goldsmith, sculptor.

Brother of Jean Pierre Xavier and Jean Joseph Xavier Bidauld. He worked in Toulouse, making sculptures in metal and wood.

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1764; died 1843.

Goldsmith. Objets d'art.

Biennais became the head goldsmith to Napoleon I. His works featured in an exhibition at the Louvre in 2003.

Dion-Tenenbaum, Anne: L'Orfèvre de Napoléon. M.G. Biennais, exhibition catalogue, musée du Louvre, Paris, 2003....

Article

Donna Corbin

(b Lacochère, Orne, April 29, 1764; d Paris, March 26, 1843).

French cabinetmaker and silversmith. The silver and silver-gilt produced in his workshop rivals that of his contemporaries Henri Auguste and Jean Baptiste Claude Odiot. By 1789 Biennais had established himself at 283, Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris, as a cabinetmaker and tabletier (a dealer in and maker of small objects). After 1797 Biennais, no doubt encouraged by the dissolution of the guild system, expanded his business to include the manufacture of silver. During the Consulate Biennais became Napoleon’s personal silversmith, although he may have provided Napoleon with silver as early as 1798, when it is said that he supplied him with a nécessaire de voyage prior to his Egyptian campaign (1798–1801) and trusted him to pay for it on his return.

Biennais produced large amounts of silver for Napoleon and his family, including, in 1804, the crown and sceptre for his coronation and a number of nécessaires of different types, remarkable for the combination of forms of varying shapes and sizes that are ingeniously accommodated in a restricted space. One (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1761; d 1833).

French gunsmith. He worked in the service of Louis XVI (reg 1774–92) as Directeur-artiste of the Manufacture d’Armes de Versailles and at the Revolution became technical director of the state arms factory. While working as a manager he also made decorated swords and luxury firearms, some for Napoleon (...

Article

Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 3 December 1758, in Wädenswil (Zurich); died 1er May 1835.

Medallist, engraver. Village views. Cards.

Heinrich Bruppacher was a medal-maker in Lucerne. He engraved some topographical maps, a frontispiece and a work published in 1789, as well as many baptism orders of service. His most interesting engravings are a series of views of villages around Lake Zurich....

Article

Hannelore Hägele

(b Geisslingen, Feb 7, 1742; d Durlach, 1811).

German medallist and engraver. In 1768 he began his career in Augsburg, where he exhibited medals of the municipal curators Langenmantel and Amman and of Paul von Stetten. He later went to Karlsruhe, where he became court medallist and die-engraver; he also worked in Durlach. Stylistically, his medals, often initialled j.m.b., closely resemble those of Franz Andreas Schega and Johann Karl Hedlinger. Portrait medals of Charles V, Duke of Württemberg and Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden were Bückle’s best works. He also executed the commemorative medal of Count Demetrius Galitzin (1793) and a silver medal (1773; Domanig, no. 771) depicting a hunting scene, awarded as a prize by the School of Forestry and Hunting Science. His pupil J. H. Boltschhauser became a medal engraver to the Mannheim court.

H. Bolzenthal: Skizzen zur Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen-Arbeit (1429–1840) (Berlin, 1840) K. Domanig: Die deutsche Medaille in kunst- und kulturhistorischer Hinsicht...

Article

Gertrud Seidmann

(bapt London, Oct 30, 1730; d London, Feb 1814).

English gem-engraver, medallist, wax modeller and miniature painter. Of humble origins, he was self-taught as an engraver but studied drawing and modelling at the St Martin’s Lane Academy and in the gallery of casts belonging to Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, known as the Duke of Richmond’s Academy. He exhibited with the Society of Artists, of which he was a director, from 1760 until 1769, and gained three premiums from the Society of Arts between 1763 and 1766. In 1769 he enrolled at the Royal Academy as a student, became an ARA the following year and in 1771 was the first of the elected Academicians, presenting as his diploma work a cornelian intaglio of Neptune (London, RA). He enjoyed great success and attracted wide patronage for more than two decades, engraving principally antique subjects (e.g. Sabina, yellow sard intaglio; Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G.), allegorical scenes (e.g. Sacrifice to Minerva...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1759; d 1838).

American clockmaker and silversmith. After an apprenticeship in Norwich, CT, he established a business in East Windsor, CT. He made fine longcase clocks with brass works and faces of engraved silver. His day-books and ledgers survive, and show that he made and sold only 49 clocks in the course of 20 years....

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Hanau, March 13, 1763; d Aachen, May 18, 1823).

German painter and dealer. He was taught to draw by his father, Jean Jacques Bury (1731–85), a goldsmith and engraver born in Strasbourg, who also taught at the Hanau Zeichnenakademie. After taking painting lessons from Anton Wilhelm Tischbein (1730–1804), in 1780 Bury attended the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, where he practised copying from the work of the Old Masters, especially Peter Paul Rubens, in the gallery belonging to the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore. In 1782 Bury went to Italy with his friend Heinrich Lips (1758–1817), a copperplate-engraver, staying until 1799. His contented and enthusiastic character endeared him to the German artists in Rome, and he became especially close to Wilhelm Tischbein, nephew of his former painting teacher, who introduced him to Goethe in 1786. Goethe often subsequently referred to Bury as a ‘child’ and bought many of the drawings and watercolours based on the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and other Old Masters that Bury produced in Rome (Weimar, Goethe-Nmus.). In turn Goethe recommended Bury to ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

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Gordon Campbell

Scottish ironworks established in 1759 near Falkirk; by 1800 it was the largest smelting works in Europe, with 1000 employees. Its revolutionary iron-smelting techniques enabled the company to mass-produce fire-grates and stoves; its designers included Robert Adam, who designed a number of elegant fire surrounds, stoves and grates. In the late 18th century the company made some items of cast-iron furniture; it later supplied architectural ironwork for the Edinburgh New Town. James Watt (1736–1819) made his first steam engine at Carron, and Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842) made his exploding shell in the ironworks. Carron is also the eponym of the carronade, a small naval cannon used by the British at Trafalgar.

The company closed in 1982. Its complete archive, which documents its relationship with Adam and other designers, was deposited in the Scottish Record Office in Edinburgh. Falkirk Museum houses the entire collection of the ironworks museum, including many castings and trade catalogues. A new company called Carron Phoenix operates beside the original foundry, manufacturing kitchen sinks and hardware....