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Article

Claude Laroche

(b Paris, Nov 9, 1812; d Chatou, Aug 2, 1884).

French architect and restorer. He was the son of a Neo-classical architect of the same name (1783–1868), who was a pupil of Charles Percier and architect to the département of Charente. The younger Paul Abadie began studying architecture in 1832 by joining the atelier of Achille Leclère and then entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1835. While he was following this classical training, he participated in the rediscovery of the Middle Ages by going on archaeological trips and then, from 1844, in his capacity as attaché to the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He undertook his first restoration work at Notre-Dame de Paris, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. Abadie was appointed deputy inspector at Notre-Dame in 1845, and in 1848, when the department responsible for diocesan buildings was created, he was appointed architect to the dioceses of Périgueux, Angoulême and Cahors. He subsequently completed about 40 restoration projects, mainly on Romanesque churches in Charente, in the Dordogne and the Gironde, and as a diocesan architect he was put in charge of two large cathedrals in his district: St Pierre d’Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux. In the former he undertook a huge programme of ‘completion’, returning to a stylistic unity that was in line with current episcopal policy (...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Rome.

Sculptor. Monuments.

Taught at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome and was responsible chiefly for the restoration of ancient monuments and sculptures. He was known still to be alive in 1807. In 1780 he was commissioned by Catherine the Great of Russia to sculpt the tomb of Raffael Mengs in St Peter's, Rome....

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Naples.

Sculptor.

Records of the Bourbon court for 1791 list him as a 'marbler'. He is known to have worked from 1799 to 1805 on the restoration of sculptures uncovered during archaeological excavations.

Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Died 1827, in Paris.

Painter, lithographer.

He trained at the art school in Montpellier and gained a second-class medal in 1824. He was appointed director of the restoration of paintings at the Louvre in 1816. At the 1799 Salon he exhibited ...

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1770, in Paris; died 1846.

Engraver.

He engraved medals of the major personalities and events of the Empire, the Restoration, and the July Monarchy.

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 11 February 1763, in Toulon; died 28 February 1831, in Toulon.

Sculptor, draughtsman, art restorer. Religious subjects, seascapes. Decorative schemes.

Brun first studied sculpture at the workshop of the Port of Toulon, before moving to Rome in 1782, where he spent six months perfecting his art with the Roman masters of the day. With no means to support himself, he eventually returned to France. Two years later, influential patrons secured him a grant from the King, enabling him to study in Italy for a further four years. Upon his return to Toulon in ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Painter.

Pierre Carlier was also a picture-restorer in Paris.

Article

P. Knolle

(b Groningen, bapt March 12, 1745; d Amsterdam, 1818).

Dutch painter, restorer and art appraiser. He began work at an early age in Steven Numan’s factory of lacquered objects in Groningen. With Numan’s son Hermanus he decided to improve his skills in the wallpaper factory of Jan and Johannes Luberti Augustini in Haarlem. When Numan left for Paris to continue his studies, van Drielst moved to Amsterdam, where he worked again for a short period in a wallpaper factory before he began to work independently. He became a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1768, the year he attended the Amsterdam city drawing academy to practise life drawing. He also carried out restorations and appraisals and became a friend of Adriaan de Lelie and other artists.

Van Drielst became increasingly interested in landscape, and working from nature studies he made watercolours and paintings that sold easily to such collectors as Bernardus de Bosch and Jan Gildemeester. These landscapes, which appealed to the renewed interest in nature in the 18th century, were based on the work of 17th-century Dutch painters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van Ruisdael. Van Drielst was nicknamed the ‘Drentse Hobbema’, as he increasingly frequented the province of Drenthe to supplement his series of sketches from nature, for example the ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Loreto, 1744; d Venice, March 17, 1821).

Italian restorer. He was a pupil of the painter Gaspare Diziani, but is known mainly as a restorer and as the organizer of the restoration workshop set up by the Republic of Venice in 1778 for the conservation of ‘public paintings’, such as those in the Doge’s Palace and in churches under the state’s jurisdiction. For this task he called on the services of several restorers, including Giuseppe Bertani (fl c. 1717–97) and Diziani’s son Giuseppe (fl until 1803). Some aspects of Edwards’ techniques were unusual. When relining paintings, for example, he would pour warm sand on to the backs in order to paste them to the new canvas, a method that was gradually replaced by the system of hot irons introduced by the French at the end of the 18th century. He always restricted retouching to areas of missing paint and refused to add or remove inscriptions or to make any alterations or ‘improvements’ to a painting. He also kept careful records of the planning of his restorations, paying attention to the protection of the setting of a work, as well as individual costings. Edwards’ extensive restoration of works in the ...

Article

Swedish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1720, in Falun; died 1814, in Stockholm.

Painter, art restorer.

Erik Hallblad went to Stockholm in 1737 and was a pupil of Olof Arenius. He was best known as an inventor of relining processes and as a restorer of paintings....

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 29 December 1759, in Farnley Moor, Leeds; died 13 October 1817, in Masham.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, art restorer. Genre scenes, figures, landscapes, urban views, urban landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes, animals. Stage sets.

Julius Caesar Ibbetson was initially apprenticed to a painter of ships. He worked alone on his drawing, and at the age of 17 produced the scenery for a play enacted in Hull and in York. He went to London in ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

Article

Marianne Frodl-Schneemann

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt am Main, Sept 15, 1780; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1856).

Austrian painter, teacher and Curator of German birth. From the age of ten, Krafft studied at the Hanau Akademie while at the same time continuing his school education in Hanau. In 1799 he went to Vienna with his sister and studied at the Akademie for three years with the history and portrait painter Heinrich Füger. At this time Krafft painted mythological subjects, made copies from older works and produced several self-portraits that already reveal his capacities in this genre, for example Self-portrait (1799; priv. col., see Frodl-Schneemann, pl. I). The dream-like atmosphere of total absorption, which Krafft often achieved through his use of the techniques of early German painting, constitutes one of the most striking aspects of his portraits from the turn of the century. From 1802 to 1804 he was in Paris, where he studied with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard. The work of these two, together with that of Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Antoine-Jean Gros, was to influence Krafft’s later work when he returned to Vienna. David’s realist tendencies in painting had a fundamental effect on Krafft’s artistic output, and it was through Krafft that this realism contributed to a development towards Biedermeier art in Vienna. In ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1754, in Toulouse; died 28 May 1839, in Paris.

Sculptor.

A student of François Lucas, this artist exhibited at the Salon between 1799 and 1833. He was a professor at the Académie in Toulouse and restorer at the antiques museum at the Louvre from ...

Article

Belgian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1773, in Brussels.

Painter, art restorer. Landscapes.

A pupil of Dinter in Den Bosch (Holland), Jean François Laurent's sons Guillaume and Anton were also painters.

Article

Dutch, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 6 February 1774, in The Hague; died 17 March 1845, in The Hague.

Painter.

A student of Cornelis van Cuylenburgh, Loeff was also a landscape painter and picture restorer.

Amsterdam: H.M.Eckhart

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1773, of Bolognese origin.

Painter, art restorer.

Angelo Masini was the son of the theatre painter Francesco Masini, born around 1733, and the brother of the painter Antonio Masini.

Donaueschingen (Fürstlich Fürstenbergisches Sammlungen): Portrait of a Man

Article

Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Baptised 2 May 1745 in Bern; died 20 December 1828.

Painter, art restorer.