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Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).


From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...


[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...


Paul Gerbod

(b Paris, Feb 26, 1781; d Versailles, July 12, 1863).

French writer and painter. The son of the architect Jean-Baptiste Delécluze, in 1796 he entered the studio of Charles Moreau (1762–1810), who introduced him to Jacques-Louis David. He tried to make a career as a painter between 1808 and 1814, exhibiting pictures, such as The Rape of Europa (exh. Salon 1808) and Augustus and Cinna (exh. Salon 1814; Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), that show his loyalty to the Neo-classical school. He also produced three watercolours depicting the events of 1814 (Versailles, Château).

In 1815 Delécluze abandoned painting in favour of writing art criticism. After travelling in Italy and England, he wrote his first article, published in the Lycée français, and he subsequently wrote an account of the Salon of 1822 in the Moniteur universel. In November 1822 he wrote an obituary of Antonio Canova for the Journal des débats and continued to contribute to that newspaper until his death. He wrote for several other journals, including ...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 18 January 1857, in Barnstaple; died 17 July 1931, in London.

Architect, painter.

Arts and Crafts.

William Richard Lethaby was an art historian with a particular interest in medieval art and archaeology. His watercolours and drawings, executed during his summer vacations, were never shown in public during his lifetime, but were the subject of an exhibition at the Tate Gallery in ...


Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...


Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 9th December 1823, in Ravenna; died 29th July 1896, in Ravenna.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver (burin). Architectural views. Decorative schemes.

Luigi Ricci was the father of Corrado Ricci, the art historian. Luigi was taught by Francesco Cocchi of Bologna between 1846...


British, 19th century, male.

Born 8 February 1819, in London; died 20 January 1900, in Brantwood.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, art theorist. Architectural views.

John Ruskin was of Scottish stock; his father John James Ruskin was a prosperous wine merchant and his mother a devout evangelical Christian. As a child, Ruskin's health was suspect and he was educated principally at home. He demonstrated a taste for the arts from an early age. He travelled frequently in the company of his parents, visiting most parts of Britain and travelling extensively in Europe (Northern France, Flanders, the Rhineland and Switzerland). He visited Paris in 1825 and started writing poetry and plays the following year, although he only began publishing his verse in 1830. As an artist, he was not, as is sometimes alleged, 'essentially self-taught'. In 1831, he took drawing and composition lessons from Charles Runciman; in 1836, his father arranged for Copley Fielding to tutor him in drawing and composition and introduce him to the art of watercolours; and, in 1841, he received further instruction from John Duffield Harding....


Rand Carter

(b Neuruppin, Mark Brandenburg, March 13, 1781; d Berlin, Oct 9, 1841).

German architect, painter and stage designer. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin (see Berlin, §I, 3) and Potsdam (see Potsdam, §1) show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.

Schinkel’s father, a Lutheran pastor, died after attempting to save victims of a fire in 1787 that destroyed most of Neuruppin, a town 27 km north-west of Berlin. Much of Schinkel’s boyhood was spent in a town under reconstruction, a model of royal benevolence and rational planning. In 1794 his mother and her six children moved to Berlin to a home for the widows of Lutheran pastors. At the 1797 Akademie der Künste exhibition in Berlin the 16-year-old Schinkel was so fascinated by a project for a monument to Frederick II of Prussia...


Matthias Frehner

(b Basle, Feb 21, 1831; d Basle, Sept 14, 1901).

Swiss painter. After his father’s early death his uncle, the architect Melchior Berry, and Berry’s brother-in-law, the art historian Jacob Burckhardt, had a decisive influence on Stückelberg’s career. From 1847 to 1848 he studied drawing with the Basle Romantic artists Ludwig Adam Kelterborn (1811–78) and Hieronymus Hess and from 1849 to 1850 he worked in Berne, in the studio of Johann Friedrich Dietler (1804–74). On the recommendation of the art historian Franz Kugler, Stückelberg then went to study (1850–51) with Gustaf Wappers at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp, where he became friends with Anselm Feuerbach. While in Paris (1852–3), he made copies of works by Correggio, Rembrandt, Veronese and Velázquez. He was influenced by Théophile Gautier’s enthusiasm for the German Romantic painters and in 1853 he moved to Munich, where he studied under Moritz von Schwind and Wilhelm von Kaulbach until ...


Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....


Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 May 1851, in Poszawsze; died 5 September 1915, in Lovran (Istria), Croatia.

Painter, art theorist, architect. Landscapes.

Stanislaw Witkiewicz was deported to Siberia, together with his family, following the 1863 uprising, where he learned drawing with the lithographer, Fleck. After the ...