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Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1828, in London; died 4 December 1905.

Sculptor, engraver, metal worker, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures. Busts.

Henry Armstead studied at the Royal Academy in London and became a member of the Academy in 1875. He exhibited a large number of busts and reliefs ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1 November 1848, in Damvillers (Meuse); died 10 December 1884, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver. History painting, religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, still-lifes.

From early childhood, Bastien-Lepage showed a taste and aptitude for drawing. He was the son of a prosperous farmer who taught and encouraged him. He continued to draw while attending school in Verdun, where the professor of drawing and composition, Fouquet, was impressed by his talent. On leaving school, however, he bowed to his family's wishes and entered the postal service (1867) rather than pursuing a career as an artist. It was soon apparent to him that he could not be both a civil servant and a painter. He promptly left his job with the postal service and started to paint full time. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts, where he studied under Cabanel. He made his Salon debut in 1870 with ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1863, in London; died 27 November 1933, in London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, religious subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Robert Anning Bell was the pupil of Aimé Morot in Paris and of Sir George Frampton in London. He taught at University College, Liverpool (...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1868, in Lille; died 16 April 1941, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, nudes, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes, landscapes, urban landscapes. Designs for tapestries.

Symbolism.

School of Pont-Aven.

Émile Bernard plays a singular role in the history of painting in the late-19th century. As demonstrated by the important retrospective of his work mounted by the Fondation Mona Bismarck in Paris in 1991, he was the often-overlooked originator of a number of highly innovative movements (Cloisonnism, Synthetism, even Symbolism), whose paternity he claimed with vehemence in his writings, before he turned his back on them all with equal forcefulness later in life. He moved to the western Paris suburb of Asnières with his family in 1881, and showed an early interest in painting, studying at the Atelier Cormon from the age of 16. Here he met his mentor, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and subsequently Van Gogh. Expelled from the studio in 1886 for insubordination and lack of discipline, he travelled to Normandy and Brittany, where he encountered Gauguin and his followers from the Pont-Aven School. In the same year, he painted the ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 2 January 1797, in Lyons; died, in Lyons.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, historical subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Busts, groups, statuettes.

The son of Lyons medal engraver Jean-Marie Chavanne (1766-1826), Jean Marie was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons from ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 6 January 1832, in Strasbourg; died 23 January 1883, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, military subjects, genre scenes, portraits, landscapes. Monuments, groups, statues.

The first ten years of Gustave Doré's life were spent in Strasbourg, surrounded by the medieval Gothic and ancien régime architecture typical of the Alsace. These surroundings made a lasting impression on the young Doré, as did the splendid Renaissance spiral staircase in his parents' home in the Rue des Écrivains (as Hans Haug notes in his preface to the catalogue of the Doré retrospective held in Strasbourg in 1854). Strasbourg and Alsace were fated to figure prominently (albeit in duly transliterated form) in the work of the gifted and precocious Doré, notably in his illustrations for Balzac's ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1816, in Viterbo (Lazio); died 1 June 1892, in Florence.

Sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects.

Pio Fedi started out as an apprentice goldsmith in Florence, then became a copper engraver in Vienna. He returned to Florence and entered the academy, where he studied sculpture. He made his debut in Rome and produced several works that established his reputation, notably ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1854, in Paris; died 17 December 1937, in L'Isle-Adam (Val-d'Oise).

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

He enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied sculpture under Jean Gautherin; he subsequently turned to painting and studied under Jean-Paul Laurens. Fourié exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born October 1780, in Grasse; died 10 November 1850, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, lithographer. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects. Murals.

Alexandre Evariste studied under his father Jean-Honoré Fragonard and under Jacques-Louis David. He exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1799 to 1842...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 6 December 1824, in Paris; died 10 September 1910, in Paris.

Sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, natural history (animals). Busts, equestrian statues, equestrian groups.

Emmanuel Frémiet was the nephew and pupil of François Rude. He apprenticed as a lithographer and initially drew studies from nature for the Paris School of Medicine, prepared anatomical moulds for the Orfila Museum, and collaborated with the painter Jacques Christophe Werner on behalf of the zoological and myological (muscle anatomy) departments of the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle to produce osteological (bone science) studies. Frémiet went on to be appointed in 1892 as Antoine Barye's successor as professor of drawing and composition at the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur in 1860, an officer of that institution in 1878, a commander in 1878 and, ultimately, grand officier of the Légion in 1900....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 31 January 1814, in Lyons; died 12 August 1889, in Charly (Rhône).

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Murals.

Jean-Baptiste Frénet studied under Claude Bonnefond at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons from 1827 to 1833...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1848, in Paris, France; died 8 May 1903, in Fatu Iva in the Marquesas Islands.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman, sculptor (wood/bronze), ceramicist, woodcutter, lithographer, zincographer, monotype artist, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, local figures, nudes, portraits, interiors, rustic scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes, animals...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 11 May 1824, in Vesoul (Haute-Saône); died 10 January 1904, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, copyist. Mythological subjects, religious subjects, genre scenes, nudes, portraits, landscapes with figures.

Orientalism.

Jean-Léon Gérôme attended secondary school in his native Vesoul and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1840. Determined to make his way as a painter, he moved to Paris to study under Paul Delaroche at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1842. He followed in Delaroche’s footsteps to Rome and attended life classes there. Gérôme returned to France in 1844 and worked in Charles Gleyre’s atelier. He entered the Prix de Rome but did not reach the final stages (although he won the prize for draughtsmanship). The workers’ revolution of 1848 saw him appointed to a captaincy in the National Guard. Gérôme travelled widely, visiting Italy, Turkey, the Danube region and Egypt and, on each occasion, returned with a large portfolio of sketches and studies. His marriage to one of the daughters of the publisher Goupil proved socially advantageous and he quickly made a name for himself to the extent that his work began to sell for substantial sums. He was appointed to a professorship at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1864, then to membership of the Institut de France (1865). As a teacher his influence was substantial and he was known to be most supportive of his pupils.1865 was an annus mirabilis in terms of his career, when he was invited to the royal court at Compiègne. He continued to travel, visiting Grenada in 1883. In 1893 he was nominated, together with Benjamin Constant, to the honorary co-presidency of the Société des Peintres Orientalisants; this was followed by his election as officer first class of the Légion d’Honneur (1898). Jean Gérôme exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon in 1847 at the age of 23, showing a composition entitled ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1 January 1731, in Paris; died 3 February 1823, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

A student of Étienne Jeaurat and René-Michel Slodtz, Étienne Pierre Adrien Gois won the Prix de Rome in 1757 with ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 October 1872, in Pforzheim; died 8 June 1943, in Jugenheim.

Sculptor (bronze), draughtsman, painter, engraver (wood), graphic designer. Religious subjects, portraits. Medals.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Daniel Greiner had been a pastor, bur he decided, after a conflict with the authorities in his parish of Schotten, to turn to art instead. He trained in Paris, then at the Bildhauerschule (school of sculpture) in Berlin. In ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 1802, in Amorbach; died 7 September 1846, in Aschaffenburg.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, collector. Church decoration.

He studied a wide range of subjects in Munich. Among other things, he decorated the Catholic church in Nördlingen (Bavaria).

Article

German, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1857, in Plagwitz, near Leipzig; died 5 July 1920, in Grossjena, near Nuremberg.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects. Statues.

Symbolism.

Max Klinger entered the art school in Karlsruhe at the age of 16, where he studied under Karl Gussov. When Gussov accepted a professorship at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, Klinger accompanied him to that city from 1875 to 1878. He also worked in the studio of Arnold Böcklin, who was also an influence. He began to exhibit in public in 1878 with a painting, ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 23 June 1794, in Anholt; died 13 September 1876, in Rome.

Painter, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, modeller. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

He trained under Joseph Bergler in Prague in 1814. His output includes large-scale landscapes and portraits. He worked in Dresden, Vienna and finally Rome, where he lived from ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 August 1867, in Nolde; died 13 April 1956, in Siekbüll (Schleswig).

Painter, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, landscapes, seascapes.

Die Brücke, Dachau Artists’ Colony.

The son of a farmer, Emil Nolde’s early economic and social conditions were not conducive to an artistic career. He developed his talents as an apprentice woodcarver from 1884 to 1888 in Flensburg, with Heinrich Sauermann. He then worked as a designer in furniture factories in Munich, Karlsruhe, and Berlin. It was in Karlsruhe, from 1888, that he took up drawing and painting, initially at evening classes, then full-time at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts). From 1889 to 1892, he lived in Berlin, where he worked as a design draughtsman for the Pfaff furniture factory. In 1892, he taught ornamental draughtsmanship at the Gewerbemuseum at St Gall, Switzerland, where he stayed for seven years. It was here that he began to draw and paint watercolours of landscapes and faces in his spare time....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 January 1864, in Abensberg; died 5 June 1932, in Munich.

Sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects.

Osterrieder was taught by Carl Fisher in Munich and Josef von Kopf in Rome. He was responsble for the cribs in Linz, Luxemburg, Cleveland (Ohio), St Peter's in Rome and a number of churches in Munich....