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Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 23 May 1874, in Drohobycz (Galicia, Ukraine); died 17 June 1925, in Brunswick.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator, book designer, photographer. Religious subjects, scenes with figures, landscapes with figures.

Ephraïm Lilien was apprenticed to a sign painter before studying at the school of fine art, Cracow, under the painter Matejko from 1890 to 1892, after which he returned to his home town to work as a commercial painter. Lacking the means to enroll at the Vienna Academy, in 1899 he settled in Berlin, where he became friends with Börries von Münchhausen. With other figures from the Zionist Congress of 1901 he founded the publishing house Jüdischer Verlag in 1902, publishing a great many works of art and literature on the Jewish Renaissance. Also in 1902 he published the ...

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Gode Krämer and Roberto Pontual

German family of painters, draughtsmen, and engravers. (1) Georg Philipp Rugendas I, an esteemed painter and graphic artist in Augsburg, established a print publishing house there in 1735. His sons Georg Philipp Rugendas II (1701–74), Christian Rugendas (1708–81), and Jeremias Gottlob Rugendas (1710–72) helped with this business, as did their descendants, including Georg Philipp II’s grandson, the engraver Johann Lorenz Rugendas II (1775–1826). (2) Johann Moritz Rugendas, the son of Johann Lorenz II, was noted particularly for his drawings and paintings of Brazil and other Latin American countries.

(b Augsburg, Nov 27, 1666; d Augsburg, May 9, 1742).

His father, a watchmaker, trained him in copper engraving, but after a fistula on his right hand forced him to abandon this he was apprenticed (...